Música

By ACDP
  • Period: 100,000 BCE to 3500 BCE

    Prehistory

    Primitive music that emerged from the imitation of the sounds of nature.
  • Period: 3500 BCE to 2100 BCE

    Mesopotamia

    The music had a divine origin and was closely linked to religion. The singing was accompanied by instruments.
  • Period: 3100 BCE to 332 BCE

    Egypt

    The music had a divine origin and was closely linked to religion. The singing was accompanied by instruments.
  • Period: 800 BCE to 146 BCE

    Greece

    Music had a great development and was closely linked to poetry and theatrical performances. The most used instruments in ancient Greece were the lyre, the harp, the aulos and the organ.
  • 476

    The troubadours

    The troubadours
    The troubadours were mainly poets and musicians who developed artistic expression in the Middle Ages. They were poets in the Middle Ages who wrote their works and set them to music with their own compositions, for this reason they were considered both poets and musicians.
  • 476

    The minstrels

    The minstrels
    The minstrels were men dedicated to the show, they were traveling musicians who delighted in singing songs, playing instruments or performing all kinds of acrobatics. The minstrels belonged, unlike the troubadours, to a lower social class.
  • Period: 476 to 1453

    Middle ages

    Monasteries became the centers of culture. Music is strongly linked to religion and was performed by the clergy. Musical notation arose. In monasteries, copyists began to draw signs on the text called neumes to help remember the melody.
  • 600

    Gregorian singing

    Gregorian singing
    This ancient chant is called Gregorian because it was Pope Gregory I in the year 600 who introduced this liturgical chant. Gregorian chant has three characteristics: it was monodic, that is, it has only one voice; in addition, it was sung a cappella: without instruments or accompaniment.
  • 991

    Guido d' Arezzo

    Guido d' Arezzo
    Guido d'Arezzo was born in 991 and died in 1033. He was a Benedictine monk who has gone down in music history as one of the most important reformers of the musical notation system.
  • 1098

    Hildegard von Bingen

    Hildegard von Bingen
    Hildegard von Bingen (Germany, 1098-1179) was a versatile medieval abbess, physicist, philosopher, naturalist, composer, poet and linguist. She was the creator of the first musical liturgical drama that is preserved.
  • 1135

    Leonin

    Leonin
    Between 1150 and 1160 he was administrator of the cathedral in Paris. He was ordained a priest at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris in 1192. He was recognized as the greatest organ composer of his time. Organum is recognized as a form of primitive polyphony that had its peak at the School of Notre Dame in Paris, the center of Ars Antiqua. He is credited with creating the Magnus liber organi, (Great Book of the Organum), used in Notre Dame around 1200.
  • 1170

    Ars antiqua

    Refers to the music of Europe in the late Middle Ages from about 1170 to 1310, covering the period of the Notre Dame School of polyphony and the years after. Includes the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. This is followed by other periods in the history of medieval music called ars nova and ars subtilior.
  • 1200

    Perotin

    Perotin
    French composer. Successor of his teacher Léonin, he is considered the most outstanding representative of the so-called School of Notre Dame de Paris, active during the 13th century and in which the polyphonic style began to take shape. Pérotin distinguished himself in the revision of the collection of polyphony for two voices Magnus liber de Léonin and in the composition of organa and conductus for two , three and four voices .
  • 1221

    Alfonso X el Sabio

    Alfonso X el Sabio
    Alfonso's reign stood out above all in the cultural order. Alfonso X el Sabio is considered the founder of Castilian prose and, in fact, the adoption of Castilian as the official language can be dated to his time. His deep knowledge of astronomy, legal sciences and history and his interest in the most diverse areas of knowledge led him to promote the organization of three great cultural centers that revolved around Toledo, Seville and Murcia.
  • 1300

    Guillaume de Machaut

    Guillaume de Machaut
    Guillaume de Machaut (ca. 1300‑1377), a French composer and poet, was the most prolific author of the 14th century, both in music and poetry. In his musical compositions all the usual forms of his time have a place and conservative and progressive elements are mixed.
  • 1310

    Ars nova

    The Ars Nova was a musical style that flourished mainly in France and Italy during the late Middle Ages in the 14th century (approximately 1310 to 1377). This type of music developed mainly in prestigious environments, such as universities, stately courts and the church. Being the Ars Nova a style subject to the academic field, it was in constant study and development.
  • 1325

    Francesco Landini

    Francesco Landini
    Francesco Landini or Landino (1325 – 1397) was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet, instrument maker, and astrologer. He was one of the most famous and admired composers of the second half of the 14th century and without a doubt the most famous composer in Italy.
  • 1397

    Guillaume Dufay

    Guillaume Dufay
    Guillaume Dufay was born in 1397, He was a Franco-Flemish composer and musician of the Renaissance. And he died in 1474.
  • Period: 1401 to

    Renaissance

    This era is so called because it sought to revive the ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
    An intellectual and cultural movement called humanism developed
  • 1404

    Musical chapels

    Musical chapels were an instrument that contributed to the creation and dissemination of music during the Renaissance in Spain. Although of remote origin in time, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries they reached their greatest splendor as an institution, so that practically each cathedral had its own chapel to musically support liturgical acts and religious events.
  • 1407

    Motet

    It is a polyphonic composition born in the thirteenth century to be sung in churches, and its themes are commonly biblical. They were songs for religious worship with 4 voices in Latin and "a cappella".
  • 1409

    Mass

    It is a choral composition that moves the music to fixed sections of the liturgy. Most masses are parts of the liturgy in Latin, the traditional language of the Catholic Church.
  • 1420

    Franco-flemish school

    The name of this school is due to a region that includes part of Belgium. In this century a group of musicians emerged who renewed the way of composing.
  • 1455

    Appearance of printing press

    Appearance of printing press
    Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press
  • 1460

    Cromormo

    Cromormo
    The cromormo is an instrument baton-shaped encapsulated reed woodwind instrument. It enjoyed popularity during the Renaissance.
  • 1461

    Harpsichord

    Harpsichord
    The harpsichord is a keyboard and plucked string musical instrument. The person who plays this instrument is called a harpsichordist. The harpsichord was one of the most popular instruments during the Baroque.
  • 1468

    Juan del Encina

    Juan del Encina
    He was born in 1468. He was a Spanish poet, musician and playwright. he entered the cathedral of Salamanca as a choirboy and later entered the service of the brother of the Duke of Alba, who financed his studies for a bachelor's degree in law at the University of Salamanca. And he died in 1529.
  • 1483

    Martín Lutero

    Martín Lutero
    Martín Lutero was born in 1483 in Germany.
    He was the main promoter of the Protestant Reformation. And he died in 1546.
  • 1489

    Josquin des Prés

    Josquin des Prés
    Josquin des Prés was born in 1450. He was a very famous Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. And he died in 1521.
  • 1500

    Cristóbal de Morales

    Cristóbal de Morales
    He was a Spanish composer. Master of polyphonic sacred music, his work is considered one of the pinnacles of Spanish Renaissance polyphony. He received musical education from Pedro Fernández de Castilleja, chapel master of the cathedral of Seville. And he died in 1553 in Málaga.
  • 1501

    Italian school

    Rome and Venice were two of the most important musical centers in Europe
  • 1501

    Spanish school

    The features that distinguish this school are depth and mysticism or dramatic expressionism.
  • 1517

    Protestant reformation

    Is the Christian religious movement started in Germany in the 16th century by Martin Luther, which led to a schism in the Catholic Church to give rise to numerous churches and religious currents grouped under the denomination of Protestantism.
  • 1525

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was born in 1525. He was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known representative of the 16th-century Roman School of musical composition. And he died in 1594.
  • 1532

    Orlando di Lasso

    Orlando di Lasso
    Orlando di Lasso was born in 1532. He was a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance. And he died in 1594.
  • 1533

    Madrigal

    The madrigal is a composition of three to six voices over a secular text, often in Italian. It had its peak in the Renaissance and early Baroque. Musically, it recognizes origins in the frottola, it has lyrics in the Italian language with secular themes, contrapuntal harmony, and a popular character.
  • 1533

    Andrea Gabrieli

    Andrea Gabrieli
    Andrea Gabrieli was born in 1533 in Venecia. He was an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance. Uncle of the famous composer Giovanni Gabrieli, he was the first internationally renowned member of the Venetian School of composers. He had great influence in the spread of the Venetian style in both Italy and Germany. And he died in 1585 in Venecia too.
  • 1545

    Trento council

    Trento council
    In this council the Counter-Reformation was promoted, establishing strict rules for writing Catholic religious music.
  • 1545

    Counter Reformation

    The Counter Reformation was a period of Catholic revival that included persecution of non-Catholics, efforts against the corruption of the Church, spiritual impulse, and the founding of new religious orders.
  • 1548

    Tomás Luis de Victoria

    Tomás Luis de Victoria
    Tomás Luis de Victoria was born in 1548 in Ávila.
    He was the greatest Spanish polyphonist of all time and one of the best in Europe of his time. His father died when he was only 9 years old. The following year he became the boy singer of the Ávila cathedral where he would remain until the age of eighteen. In 1571 he returned to the Collegium Germanicum where he was hired as a professor. In 1572 he published his first book of motets. And Tomás Luis de Victoria died in 1611.
  • 1561

    Jacobo Peri

    Jacobo Peri
    Jacopo Peri (August 20, 1561-August 12, 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the period of transition between the Renacimiento and the Baroque, and is considered the inventor of the opera. He composed the first opera that is preserved: Eurydice (1600) and the one considered the first opera in history, La Dafne (around 1597).
  • 1563

    El Escorial Monastery

    El Escorial Monastery
    It includes a royal palace, a basilica, a pantheon, a library, a college and a monastery. It is located in the Spanish town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, in the Community of Madrid, and was built in the 16th century between 1563 and 1584.
  • 1566

    Carlo Gesualdo

    Carlo Gesualdo
    Carlo Gesualdo was born in 1566. He was an Italian composer, one of the most significant figures in late Renaissance music with intensely expressive madrigals and pieces of sacred music with a chromatism that would not be heard again until the end of the 19th century. And he died in 1613 in Italy.
  • 1567

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Claudio Monteverdi
    Composer and musician considered one of the most important figures in the history of Western music. A leading figure in the development of the Baroque, his works are considered some of the best examples of that style. His first major work, the collection of madrigals "Madrigali guerrieri et amorosi", was published in 1638 and established him as one of the leading composers of his generation.
  • 1573

    La Camerata Fiorentina

    La Camerata Fiorentina
    The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals, who emerged at the end of the Renaissance of Florence, who met under the patronage of Count Giovanni de Bardi to discuss and guide artistic trends, especially within music and drama. They met from approximately 1573 until the end of 1580, in Bardi's house, and their meetings had a reputation for including almost all the most famous men in Florence as frequent guests.
  • Period: to

    Baroque

    Baroque music or Baroque music is the European musical style, related to the homonymous cultural era, which covers approximately from the birth of opera around 1600 to the death of Johann Sebastian Bach, in 1750. It is one of the styles of the generally called European classical or cultured music. Characterized by the appearance of tonality and the use of the continuous bass, the Baroque era was the time in which musical forms such as the sonata, the concerto and the opera were created.
  • Violin

    Violin
    Historically, the violin is considered to have appeared in the 1520s in Italy, more specifically in the Milan region. The documents do not specify who was the first violin maker. Several names are mentioned, but to this day it is still not possible to identify with certainty the creator of the first violin. Among these names, we find for example Andrea Amati. The violin is supposed to have been inspired by three instruments: the rebec, the fidula and the lira da braccio.
  • Opera

    Opera designates a genre of theatrical music in which a stage action is harmonized, sung and has instrumental accompaniment. Performances are usually offered in opera houses, accompanied by an orchestra or a smaller musical group. It is part of the European and Western classical music tradition.
  • Sonata

    The term sonata is used in Italian Baroque to refer generically to a multi-part instrumental composition with a continuous bass, to distinguish it on the one hand from the "cantata".
  • Concert

    The baroque concert can be considered the translation into the instrumental medium of the style defined by serious opera in the field of dramatic music. Like the serious opera, the Baroque concert was born in Italy and spreads rapidly throughout Europe.
    The baroque concert is also an ideal means for the exhibition of virtuosity by one or more instrumentalists, accompanied by an orchestra of more continuous bass string instruments, as if it were an opera singer.
  • Oratory

    The oratory is a form of European classical music consisting of choirs, arias and recitatives, performed by soloists, choir and orchestra. The oratory is almost identical to opera, what differentiates one genre from another is that the oratory is performed in the form of a concert without scenic representation, more conservative, with more emphasis on choirs and with a religious theme, although we also find oratorios with non-religious themes and written in the vernacular language.
  • Passion

    Passion is a musical genre that consists of the musicalization of a text directly related to the passion and death of Christ. The text is generally based on one of the four gospels: according to Saint Matthew, Mark, Luke or John, although it can also take up elements of all four. In most cases, however, the story is presented as it appears in one of them.
  • Suite

    The Baroque Suite is made up of baroque dances often beginning with a prelude. The dances share the same tonality. They are ordered to create contrast between tempo and meter. The suite is also known as a partita or sonata.
  • Cantata

    Is a work composed for one or more voices with instrumental accompaniment. It is one of the most important vocal genres that emerged in the Baroque period.
  • Giacomo Carissimi

    Giacomo Carissimi
    Giacomo Carissimi began his musical career as a singer and organist. In 1627 he was appointed choirmaster in Assisi, and from 1628 until his death he held the position of chapel master in the church of San Apolinar, in Rome.
  • Barbara Strozzi

    Barbara Strozzi
    She was an Italian singer and songwriter from the Baroque period. Barbara was the adopted daughter, and possibly the illegitimate daughter of Giulio Strozzi. The vast majority of her works are works for solo soprano and continuous bass, so it is possible to think that they were written to be performed by herself. His music is deeply rooted in the technique called "second practice", whose main example is the work of Claudio Monteverdi. However, his works have a greater lyrical emphasis.
  • Antonio Stradivari

    Antonio Stradivari
    Heir to the Cremonese traditions of bowed string instrument construction from his teacher Nicolo Amati, he brought his craft to perfection. He made several changes in the proportions of the instruments, especially the violin. The
    secret of his mastery is difficult to explain. There are some that reside in the varnish he used but this is controversial.
    Between 1700 and 1725 he made the best of his instruments. Today numerous copies of his violins are preserved, but cellos and violas are rarer.
  • Henry Purcell

    Henry Purcell
    British character of the second half of the 17th century, Purcell, known for his great compositional skills, who brought together Italian and French influence in his work to create his own style of British Baroque. Purcell was born on September 10, 1659, in the county of St. Anne Westminster, England. Purcell, who began composing at the age of nine, was the older of his two brothers.
  • Antonio Vivaldi

    Antonio Vivaldi
    Antonio Vivaldi was born in 1678 in Venice. He was a Baroque Venetian Catholic composer, violinist, impresario, teacher and priest. He was nicknamed Il prete rosso because he was a priest and had red hair. And he died 1741 in Vienna.
  • Georg Philipp Telemann

    Georg Philipp Telemann
    Georg Philipp Telemann was born in 1681 in Germany. He was a German Baroque composer, although his work also had characteristics of early classicism. He is considered the most prolific composer in the history of music. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig. And he died in 1767.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach

    Johann Sebastian Bach
    German composer. Considered by many to be the greatest composer of all time, Johann Sebastian Bach was born into a dynasty of musicians and performers who played a decisive role in German music for about two centuries and whose first documented mention dates back to 1561.
  • Georg Friendrich Händel

    Georg Friendrich Händel
    A prolific musician like few others, his production covers all genres of his time, with a special predilection for opera and the oratory, to which, with his contribution, he contributed to a stage of great splendor.