Period: 480 to 550
Benedict’s writing of his RuleBook of precepts for monks in monasteries. It was a guide for Christians who lived in monasteries.
Period: 500 to 1200
Stages in the development of notation up until 1200Music was firstly transmitted through oral tradition. Neumes were little syllables above the text that showed the contour of the melody (doesn't necessarily show exact notes or rhythm). Guido of Arezzo eventually introduced the Guindonian hand.
Period: 742 to 814
Charlemagne and his EmpireThe King of Franks; ruled a large area of Western Europe. He expanded the Frankish state called the Carolingian Empire. He was seen as a public figure that devoted himself to God, and was responsible for the widespread of Christianity and development and flourishment of monasteries.
Period: 991 to 1033
Guido of ArezzoItalian music theorist. Invented staff notation that ultimately replaced neumatic notation. Known for the Guidonian Hand, which allowed for musicians to label joints/specific parts of the hand to memorize syllables and intervals.
Period: 1098 to 1179
Hildegard von BingenOne of the first well-known and documented women composer, writer, philosopher, and had many other specialties. She claimed her music was a gift from God.
Period: 1135 to 1194
Bernart de VentadornBernart de Ventadorn was a professional trouvere. He was famous during his life, and his songs were poems exchanged about courtly love. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jkp2GHBRUiQ
Period: 1150 to 1200
Leonin and PerotinLeonin: first named composer of polyphonic organum- worked at the Notre Dame school. He compiled the magnus liber organi.
Perotin: Leonin's student. He edited the magnus liber organi.
Period: 1160 to 1250
Flourishing of the Notre Dame schoolGroup of composers working in or around the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. School of polyphony. Composer Leonin and his student Perotin compiled the Magnus Liber Organi, a book of organum. Part of a larger era called ars antiqua.
Period: 1160 to 1400
The flourishing of the troubadours/trouveresActive in France (troubadours to the north and trouveres to the south). Music/lyric poets that catered to the noble. Sang about courtly love.
Period: 1170 to 1310
Ars AntiquaPeriod before the Ars Nova. Period in which the Notre Dame school created polyphony.
Perotin’s Viderunt omneshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3oaRM1uDsw8. Gregorian chant written for the Mass for Christmas of 1198
Period: 1200 to 1300
The early stages in the development of polyphonyGregorian chant developed into polyphony (music with two or more musical parts). Different kinds of organums were created.
Parallel Organum: 2 voices sung in parallel motion (typically 4th or 5th)
Free Organum: Added voice can cross using different intervals. The original chant is sung in the lower voice.
Aquitanian Organum/Polyphony: two voices, the lower voice is the "tenor."
Period: 1221 to 1284
The Cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso the Wise420 musical monophonic poems written with musical notation by Alfonso the Wise. Discusses the Virgin Mary in each song/piece. There are four copies; copy E containing illuminations of musical instruments at the time.