Mus4 Extra Credit

By w2hou
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    Claissical Period

    Europe move toward Classicism in architecture, literature and art.
    - age of enlightenment
    - rise of middle class
    - concert hall
    - orchestra size increse
    - private concert (string quartet)
    - pleasing sounding music, follow identifiable form, singable melody, etc.
    - First Viennese School: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
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    Franz Joseph Haydn's Life Span

    Born in Rohrau, Austria.
    - Sent to Vienna to be a choir boy in St. Stephen's Cathedral at the age of eight.
    - Composed 104 symphonies, 83 string quartets, numerous divertimentos, trios, and sonatas, and over 20 operas.
    - Befriends Mozart in the 1780s.
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    Wolfgan Amadeus Mozart's Life Span

    Born in Salzburg, Austria.
    - Son of court musician and composer.
    - First symphony premiered when he was 8 years old.
    - Moved and became freelance musician in Vienna in 1781.
  • British Industrialization begins

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    Ludwig van Beethoven's Life Span

    Born in Bonn, Germany.
    - Also a court musician like Mozart.
    - Moved to Vienna 1792.
    - Intended to study with Mozart, ended up with Haydn instead.
    - Acclaimed virtuoso pianist.
    - Became deaf after the age of thirty.
  • Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution

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    Romantic Period

    Reaction against rationalization of nature and age of enlightenment and later, Industrial Revolution
    - music becomes more expressive and emotional.
    - rhythm and time more fluid.
    - facination with nature, past (Middle Ages, legend and chivalry, mystic and supernatural)
    - new attention to national identity.
    - discontent with musical formulas and conventions
    - Beethoven, Chopin, Berlioz, Brahms, Wagner, Mahler, etc
  • Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major

    Was one of 3 subscription concerts given that spring and was probably played by Mozart himself.
    - Proceeds from one of his most gentle and songful first movements.
    - First movement might almost have been intended as a demonstration piece for double-exposition form, except for one unique feature: a new theme introduced halfway through.
  • Mozart's Don Giovanni

    Mozart wrote Don Giovanni for Prague, the second-largest city of the Austrian Empire.
    - Premiered at Teatro di Praga.
    - Count as an opera buffa, but it's neither wholly comic drama nor wholly tragic.
  • Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G Minor

    Mozart completed Symphony No. 40 on this date.
    - It is one of his most famous and admired work.
    - Conveys a dark and uneasy mood.
    - Suggests some kind of muted struggle against inescapable restraints.
  • French Revolution begins

  • Haydn's Symphony No. 95 in C Minor

    The exact date of premiere is unknown.
    - First performed at Hanover Square Rooms in London.
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    Hector Berlioz's Life Span

    Born in France.
    - The first great composer who played no standard instrument.
    - Father was a country doctor.
    - Sent to medical school in Paris, ended up in Paris Conservatory of Music instead.
    - Supported himself with musical journalism.
  • Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor

    First performed in Vienna's Theater an der Wien.
    - One of the best-known composition in classical music.
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    Frédéric Chopin's Life Span

    Born near Warsaw, Poland.
    - Extraodinary pianist.
    - Moved to Paris.
    - Restrict his work to music for piano.
    - Died of tuberculosis.
  • Industrialization spreads throughout Europe

  • Beethoven's String Quartet No. 16 in F, Op. 135

    Written in October, 1826 and premiered in March 1828.
    - On a smaller scale compare to his other late quartets.
    - Third movement considered a scherzo.
  • Berlioz' Fantastical Symphony: An Episode in the Life of an Artist

    First performed at the Paris Conservatoire.
    - Program symphony
    - An important piece of the early Romantic period
    - Encouraged listeners to think it had been written under the influence of opium.
  • Chopin's Nocturne in F-sharp major, Op. 15, No. 2

    Nocturnes means "night pieces."
    - Has an elegance that stems partly from the wonderfully graceful rhythm, partly from the Romantic turns of harmony, and partly from the pianistic decoration of the melodic line.
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    Johannes Brahms' Life Span

    Born in Hamburg, Germany.
    - Spent much of his professional life in Vienna.
    - Father was orchestral musician.
    - By age 7 was studying with one of the finest music teacher Hamburg.
    - Met Robert and Clara Schumann at age twenty.
    - Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus.
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    Giacomo Puccini's Life Span

    Born in Lucca, Tuscany.
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    Gustav Mahler's Life Span

    Born in Kaliště, Bohemia, Austrian Empire.
    - Father was abusive, lost siblings to diphtheria, suicide or mental illness.
    - Lived near military barracks, influenced his music (marches).
    - Studied in Vienna Conservatory.
    - Jewish and opressed by anti-Semitism view of the time.
  • U.S. Civil War

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    Claude Debussy's Life Span

    Born in France.
    - Went through the strict curriculum of Paris Conservatory of Music, which he entered at the age of 10.
    - Famous for his innovations in orchestration and in ppiano writing.
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    Arnold Schoenberg's Life Span

    Born in Vienna.
    - Largely self-taught in music.
    - Produced books on music thoery, painted impressionist paintings, and wrote literary texts for many of his compositions.
    - Music grew more and more atonal, developed twelve-tone ( or serial) system when he was nearly 50.
    - Labeled degenerate music with the rise of the Nazi Party because he was Jewish.
    - Moved to the US in 1934.
    - Strange personality: gloomy, uncompromising, inordinately proud, highly superstitious.
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    Charles Ives' Life Span

    Born in Danbury, Connecticut.
    - Son of a Civil War military bandmaster and music teacher.
    - Church organist as teenager.
    - Went to Yale.
    - Successful insurance business.
    - Combined American popular- and church- music with European art music.
    - Experimental music - quarter tones.
  • Brahms' Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 77

    Written in 1878 and premiered by Joachim at Leipzig on Jan 1 1879.
    - Follow Classical forms.
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    Igor Stravinsky's Life Span

    Born in Russia.
    - Father Fyodor Stravinsky was an important bass singer.
    - Studied law and did not turn seriously to music until 19.
    - After WWI, he modeled his music on pre-Romantic composers, transforming the music by his own unique rhythmic and harmonic style. (Neoclassicism)
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    Anton Webern's Life Span

    Born in Vienna, Austria.
    - pupil of Schoenberg.
    - the most radical of its milieu in its rigorous and resolute apprehension of twelve-tone technique.
    - compositions are concise, distilled and select.
    - killed by US soldier when accidentally broke curfew.
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    Alban Berg's Life Span

    Born in Vienna.
    - Most powerful exponent of expressionism in music after Schoenberg.
    - Produced compositions that combined Mahlerian Romanticism with personal adaptation of Schoenberg's twelve-tone system.
  • Mahler's Symphony No. 1

    Premiered at the Vigadó Concert Hall, Budapest.
    - Started out as a symphonic poem in one movement, grew to a five-movement symphony, and was finally revised into four movements.
    - Includes fragments from a number of his earlier songs.
    - Special kind of counterpoint closely tied up with his individual style of orchestration.
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    Modernism

    More experimental composition following WWI and WWII.
    - expressionism, neoclassicism, etc.
    - Second Viennese School: Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern.
    - Igor Stravinsky, Charles, Ives, Aaron Copland, etc.
  • Debussy's Three Nocturnes

    Might be described as impressionist symphonic poems, though have no narrative programs.
    - Suggest various scenes without attempting to illustrate them literally.
    - Refrence to famouse atmospheric paintings by impressionist artist, James McNeill Whistler.
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    Aaron Copland's Life Span

    Born in Brooklyn.
    - Went to study under Nadia Boulanger in Paris.
    - Promoted American music after returned.
    - Attracted by the idea that art should "serve the people." (Gebrauchsmusik)
    - Draw from folk materials.
  • Puccini's Madame Butterfly

    First performed at La Scala and was withdrawn after disatrous premiere.
    - Second version premiered at Brescia to great success.
    - Puccini wrote 5 versions of the opera.
  • Charles Ives' The Unanswered Question

    Three sections:
    - string (The Silences of the Druids)
    - trumpet (The Unanswered Question of Existence)
    - woodwind (The Invisible Answer - Fighting Answerers)
  • Webern's Five Orchestral Pieces

    Premiere in London at a Promenade Concert.
    - music feels concentrated (atomized)
    - 6 measures long
    - very short time segment of very high intensity
    - total chromaticism
  • Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire

    Song cycle sets poems by a minor symbolist poet, Albert Giraud.
    - Pierrot is the eternal sad clown
    - Poem dotted with Freudian imagery.
    - "Lunar" - obsession with the moon, amorous frustrations, nightmarish hallucinations.
    - Five instruments: flute, clarinet, violin, cello, piano. (3 player double on other instruments: piccolo, bass clarinet, viola)
  • Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring

    Written for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes company.
    - First performance caused a riot (audience shocked and infuriated by the violent, dissonant sounds and the provocative choreography)
    - No real story, more an abstract concert piece.
  • World War I begins

  • Alban Berg's Wozzeck

    First performed in 1925.
    - First conceived during WWI.
    - Wagnerian (depends on musical continuity carried by the orchestra).
    - Uses leitmotivs, contains no arias.
    - Musical style influenced by Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire.
  • World War II begins

  • Copland's Appalachian Spring

    Premiered at the Library of Congress.
    - choreographed and danced by Martha Graham.
    - Concert suite in six continuous sections.