Claissical PeriodEurope move toward Classicism in architecture, literature and art.
- age of enlightenment
- rise of middle class
- concert hall
- orchestra size increse
- private concert (string quartet)
- pleasing sounding music, follow identifiable form, singable melody, etc.
- First Viennese School: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
Franz Joseph Haydn's Life SpanBorn in Rohrau, Austria.
- Sent to Vienna to be a choir boy in St. Stephen's Cathedral at the age of eight.
- Composed 104 symphonies, 83 string quartets, numerous divertimentos, trios, and sonatas, and over 20 operas.
- Befriends Mozart in the 1780s.
Wolfgan Amadeus Mozart's Life SpanBorn in Salzburg, Austria.
- Son of court musician and composer.
- First symphony premiered when he was 8 years old.
- Moved and became freelance musician in Vienna in 1781.
British Industrialization begins
Ludwig van Beethoven's Life SpanBorn in Bonn, Germany.
- Also a court musician like Mozart.
- Moved to Vienna 1792.
- Intended to study with Mozart, ended up with Haydn instead.
- Acclaimed virtuoso pianist.
- Became deaf after the age of thirty.
Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution
Romantic PeriodReaction against rationalization of nature and age of enlightenment and later, Industrial Revolution
- music becomes more expressive and emotional.
- rhythm and time more fluid.
- facination with nature, past (Middle Ages, legend and chivalry, mystic and supernatural)
- new attention to national identity.
- discontent with musical formulas and conventions
- Beethoven, Chopin, Berlioz, Brahms, Wagner, Mahler, etc
Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 23 in A MajorWas one of 3 subscription concerts given that spring and was probably played by Mozart himself.
- Proceeds from one of his most gentle and songful first movements.
- First movement might almost have been intended as a demonstration piece for double-exposition form, except for one unique feature: a new theme introduced halfway through.
Mozart's Don GiovanniMozart wrote Don Giovanni for Prague, the second-largest city of the Austrian Empire.
- Premiered at Teatro di Praga.
- Count as an opera buffa, but it's neither wholly comic drama nor wholly tragic.
Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G MinorMozart completed Symphony No. 40 on this date.
- It is one of his most famous and admired work.
- Conveys a dark and uneasy mood.
- Suggests some kind of muted struggle against inescapable restraints.
French Revolution begins
Haydn's Symphony No. 95 in C MinorThe exact date of premiere is unknown.
- First performed at Hanover Square Rooms in London.
Hector Berlioz's Life SpanBorn in France.
- The first great composer who played no standard instrument.
- Father was a country doctor.
- Sent to medical school in Paris, ended up in Paris Conservatory of Music instead.
- Supported himself with musical journalism.
Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C MinorFirst performed in Vienna's Theater an der Wien.
- One of the best-known composition in classical music.
Frédéric Chopin's Life SpanBorn near Warsaw, Poland.
- Extraodinary pianist.
- Moved to Paris.
- Restrict his work to music for piano.
- Died of tuberculosis.
Industrialization spreads throughout Europe
Beethoven's String Quartet No. 16 in F, Op. 135Written in October, 1826 and premiered in March 1828.
- On a smaller scale compare to his other late quartets.
- Third movement considered a scherzo.
Berlioz' Fantastical Symphony: An Episode in the Life of an ArtistFirst performed at the Paris Conservatoire.
- Program symphony
- An important piece of the early Romantic period
- Encouraged listeners to think it had been written under the influence of opium.
Chopin's Nocturne in F-sharp major, Op. 15, No. 2Nocturnes means "night pieces."
- Has an elegance that stems partly from the wonderfully graceful rhythm, partly from the Romantic turns of harmony, and partly from the pianistic decoration of the melodic line.
Johannes Brahms' Life SpanBorn in Hamburg, Germany.
- Spent much of his professional life in Vienna.
- Father was orchestral musician.
- By age 7 was studying with one of the finest music teacher Hamburg.
- Met Robert and Clara Schumann at age twenty.
- Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus.
Giacomo Puccini's Life SpanBorn in Lucca, Tuscany.
Gustav Mahler's Life SpanBorn in Kaliště, Bohemia, Austrian Empire.
- Father was abusive, lost siblings to diphtheria, suicide or mental illness.
- Lived near military barracks, influenced his music (marches).
- Studied in Vienna Conservatory.
- Jewish and opressed by anti-Semitism view of the time.
U.S. Civil War
Claude Debussy's Life SpanBorn in France.
- Went through the strict curriculum of Paris Conservatory of Music, which he entered at the age of 10.
- Famous for his innovations in orchestration and in ppiano writing.
Arnold Schoenberg's Life SpanBorn in Vienna.
- Largely self-taught in music.
- Produced books on music thoery, painted impressionist paintings, and wrote literary texts for many of his compositions.
- Music grew more and more atonal, developed twelve-tone ( or serial) system when he was nearly 50.
- Labeled degenerate music with the rise of the Nazi Party because he was Jewish.
- Moved to the US in 1934.
- Strange personality: gloomy, uncompromising, inordinately proud, highly superstitious.
Charles Ives' Life SpanBorn in Danbury, Connecticut.
- Son of a Civil War military bandmaster and music teacher.
- Church organist as teenager.
- Went to Yale.
- Successful insurance business.
- Combined American popular- and church- music with European art music.
- Experimental music - quarter tones.
Brahms' Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 77Written in 1878 and premiered by Joachim at Leipzig on Jan 1 1879.
- Follow Classical forms.
Igor Stravinsky's Life SpanBorn in Russia.
- Father Fyodor Stravinsky was an important bass singer.
- Studied law and did not turn seriously to music until 19.
- After WWI, he modeled his music on pre-Romantic composers, transforming the music by his own unique rhythmic and harmonic style. (Neoclassicism)
Anton Webern's Life SpanBorn in Vienna, Austria.
- pupil of Schoenberg.
- the most radical of its milieu in its rigorous and resolute apprehension of twelve-tone technique.
- compositions are concise, distilled and select.
- killed by US soldier when accidentally broke curfew.
Alban Berg's Life SpanBorn in Vienna.
- Most powerful exponent of expressionism in music after Schoenberg.
- Produced compositions that combined Mahlerian Romanticism with personal adaptation of Schoenberg's twelve-tone system.
Mahler's Symphony No. 1Premiered at the Vigadó Concert Hall, Budapest.
- Started out as a symphonic poem in one movement, grew to a five-movement symphony, and was finally revised into four movements.
- Includes fragments from a number of his earlier songs.
- Special kind of counterpoint closely tied up with his individual style of orchestration.
ModernismMore experimental composition following WWI and WWII.
- expressionism, neoclassicism, etc.
- Second Viennese School: Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern.
- Igor Stravinsky, Charles, Ives, Aaron Copland, etc.
Debussy's Three NocturnesMight be described as impressionist symphonic poems, though have no narrative programs.
- Suggest various scenes without attempting to illustrate them literally.
- Refrence to famouse atmospheric paintings by impressionist artist, James McNeill Whistler.
Aaron Copland's Life SpanBorn in Brooklyn.
- Went to study under Nadia Boulanger in Paris.
- Promoted American music after returned.
- Attracted by the idea that art should "serve the people." (Gebrauchsmusik)
- Draw from folk materials.
Puccini's Madame ButterflyFirst performed at La Scala and was withdrawn after disatrous premiere.
- Second version premiered at Brescia to great success.
- Puccini wrote 5 versions of the opera.
Charles Ives' The Unanswered QuestionThree sections:
- string (The Silences of the Druids)
- trumpet (The Unanswered Question of Existence)
- woodwind (The Invisible Answer - Fighting Answerers)
Webern's Five Orchestral PiecesPremiere in London at a Promenade Concert.
- music feels concentrated (atomized)
- 6 measures long
- very short time segment of very high intensity
- total chromaticism
Schoenberg's Pierrot LunaireSong cycle sets poems by a minor symbolist poet, Albert Giraud.
- Pierrot is the eternal sad clown
- Poem dotted with Freudian imagery.
- "Lunar" - obsession with the moon, amorous frustrations, nightmarish hallucinations.
- Five instruments: flute, clarinet, violin, cello, piano. (3 player double on other instruments: piccolo, bass clarinet, viola)
Stravinsky's The Rite of SpringWritten for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes company.
- First performance caused a riot (audience shocked and infuriated by the violent, dissonant sounds and the provocative choreography)
- No real story, more an abstract concert piece.
World War I begins
Alban Berg's WozzeckFirst performed in 1925.
- First conceived during WWI.
- Wagnerian (depends on musical continuity carried by the orchestra).
- Uses leitmotivs, contains no arias.
- Musical style influenced by Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire.
World War II begins
Copland's Appalachian SpringPremiered at the Library of Congress.
- choreographed and danced by Martha Graham.
- Concert suite in six continuous sections.