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Modern European History: Greatest Hits: Team- BACK TO THE FUTURE

  • Nov 30, 1543

    Nicholas Copernicus: The Copernicus System

    Nicholas Copernicus: The Copernicus System
    Nicholas Copernicus publishes his book "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres which hypothesizes that the sun was the center of the planetary system and that the planets orbited it instead of Earth as previously thought.
  • Galileo Galilei / The Trial of Galileo

    Galileo Galilei / The Trial of Galileo
    The Trial of Galileo
    In the 1633 trial of Galileo, two worlds came into conflict. Galileo's world of science and humanism collides with the world of scholasticism and absolution that held power in the Catholic Church.
  • Science and Religion

    Science and Religion- Ever since the geocentric (earth centered) conception was first challenged by Copernicus in 1543, a tremendous tension occurred between the Church and science. People began to question whether they needed religion at all. Pascal sought to bring religion and science together after having a mystical vision in 1654. He saw the split between the two as unnecessary and attempted to write an “apology for Christian religion”. But died before he finished.
  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton, Born in an English village. (1642-1727) He attended Cambridge University. He specialized in Mathematics. His famous writings called Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, known as Principia. Newton was famous for his three laws of gravity known as Newton's Law of Gravity.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland in 1712. He was basically self-educated. He wandered through France and Italy with a variety of jobs and soon ended up in Paris, where he came across the circle of philosophies. He is most famous “The Social Contract,” which he created to harmonize individual freedoms and government authority.
  • Fredrick the Great

    A Prussian king during the eighteenth century. He was one of the best educated and most cultured monarchs.Fredrick was a conscientious ruler who made few innovations in administration. His diligence in overseeing its operations, however, made Prussian bureaucracy well known for both efficiency and honesty.
  • High Vs. Popular Culture

    High culture usually means the literacy and artistic world of the educated and wealthy ruling classes. By the eighteenth century, European high culture consisted of a learned world of theologians, scientist, philosophers, intellectuals, poets, dramatist, for whom Latin remained a living and truly international language. Their work was supported by the aristocracy and wealthy upper classes in the cities. Popular culture refers to the written and unwritten literature and the social activities and
  • Period: to

    7 Years War

    The seven Years’ war took place in (1756-1763) when the Austrian ruler Maria Theresa refused to accept the loss of Silesia. Theresa attempted to regain it by rebuilding her armies and trying to sever the alliance between Prussia and France. After intense fighting the war ended in stalemate in 1763
  • Catherine the Great

    Catherine the Great
    The 1st female queen foreign born to Russia. As an enlightment thinker, she published "Instruction" in 1767 on reforms, torture, capitalpunishment and equality under law which proved unsucessful. Her policies were focused on gaining power through territory expansion.
  • Frances Marie Arout ( Voltaire )

    Frances Marie Arout ( Voltaire )
    Voltaire one of the greatest figures in the Enlightenment era. He was born to a prosperous middle class family in Paris and received a classical education. He studied law, and was a playwrite. He wrote many pamphlets, novels, plays, letters, and philosophical essays. He was a philosoph, and was known for critisism of traditional religion and ideals of religious toleration. In 1763 he penned his Treatise on Toleration.
  • On Crimes and Punishment

    On Crimes and Punishment
    By the eighteenth century many states had developed a system of brutal punishments for numerous crimes. Subjects were broken on the wheel, drawn and quartered, and tortured for information before a trial. Appalled by capital punishment, Cesare Beccaria wrote “On Crimes and Punishment” in 1764.
  • Steam Engine

    Steam Engine
    Video Steam EngineScottish engineer James Watt during 1760's and 1770 invented,worked on and improved the Steam Engine. The steam engine revolutionized the cotton industry.
  • Wealth of Nations was Published

    The Wealth of Nations was first published in 1776, by Adam Smith it is a reflection on economics at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and argues that free market economies are more productive and beneficial to their societies. The book is considered to be the foundation of modern economic theory. It influenced not only authors and economists, but governments and organizations. For example, Alexander Hamilton was influenced in part by The Wealth of Nations to write his Report on Manufact
  • Joseph II

    An Austrian Ruler who believed in the need to sweep away anything standing in the path of reason. He wanted wanted to strengthen power within the monarchy and Europe.He abolished serfdom and tried to give the peasants hereditary right to their holdings. Joseph also abrogated the death penalty and established the principle of equality of all before the law. He introduced drastic religous reforms as well,
  • Power Loom

    Edmund Cartwright was the one responsible for the creation of the power loom in (1787). It suggested bringing workers to factories near water where steam could be produced. This made output of goods far more effective than all the workers producing at their own homes.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    Great periods of ignorance on the part of King Louis XIV, XV and XVI had put France in a period of extreme debt. When a poor harvest resulted in a famine in France the tensions worsened. The debt was so serious the Louis XVI had no choice but to call a meeting in 1788.
  • Old Regime

    Before the Revolution, the French society was all about the idea of inequality of rights and was split up into three categories, The First Estate, the Second Estate and the Third Estate. The First Estate was clergy, the Second Estate was nobility and the Third estate was commoners of the French Society.
  • Bastille

    Picture of the BastilleThe most famous uprising during the French Revolution. This wa an old jail now being used as an armory to store weapons and gunpowder. The Parisians on July 14 attacked the Bastille, it fell very quickly.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    Adopted in Versailles, Framce, is the most importsnt document of the French Rervolution. The Charter proclaimed basic liberties from King Louis XVI. Comprise of 17 key points, it also included that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights".
  • Economic Change

    In the 18th century in Europe, mass population growth, an agricultural revolution, industrialization, and an increase in world trade caused Europe to take on new economic patterns. In 1700 the European population was 120 million people, buy 1790 it grew to 190 million people.
  • Romanticism

    Toward the end of the eighteenth century a new outlook on life was emerging. Romantics sought to focus on one’s inner feelings rather than become too preoccupied with the reason of the Enlightenment.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen
    In 1791, Olympe de Gouges wrote a document proclaiming equal, natural, and inalienable rights for women. Her 17 point document was dismissed by the National Assembly. After the French Rervolution, she was arrested and eventually sent to the guillotine.
  • The Debate

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, an Enlightenment thinker wrote `Emile in 1762, believed women were not capable of the same intellectual functions as a man. A wealthy female British Enlightenment thinker, Mary Astell 1666-1731, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, 1697, argued a need for better education for women. Mary Wallstonecraft 1759-1797, Vindication of the Rights of Woman 1792, was a female Enlightenment thinker considered the founder of modern European feminism.
  • Socialism

    Due to the unpleasant conditions in the slums, mines and factories of the Industrial Revolution, a new ideology for change came into play called socialism. Socialism eventually became associated with a Marxist analysis of human society, but early socialism was introduced equality into social conditions and believed human cooperation was superior to the competition that characterized early industrial capitalism.
  • Rise of Napoleon

    When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was a lieutenant, but rose quickly through the ranks. He won the confidence of his men by his energy, charm, and ability to comprehend complex issues quickly and make decisions rapidly. Napoleon saw himself as a military genius who had a touch for leading. When he returned from Egypt, he participated in the coup d’état that ultimately led his virtual dictatorship of France. During the tumultuous years of the French Revolution, Napoleon fought wel
  • War of 1812

    The famous war of 1812 was fought primarily between the United States and Great Britain. The war began when the Americans declared war on Britain on June 18th 1812, and lasted until the beginning of 1815. The war of 1812 was officially over, after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24th 1814, and was ratified by the US president on February 17th 1815.
  • Nationalism

    An idealology that states that the indivual's consciousness was a sense of being part of teh community. The individuals responsibility was loyalty to their nation.
  • The Factory Act 1833

    The Factory Act 1833
    Worker in these new industrial factories had very poor working conditions. They were paid very little and had no job security and they usually worked 12-16 hours a day with only a half and hour for lunch and dinner. By 1830, women and children made up 2.3 of the cotton industry’s labor. They overworked everyone in these factories, even children, which is why they came up with the Factory Act 1833 which made the number of children working in the factories decline.
  • Potato Famine/Great Famine

    Potato Famine/Great Famine
    href='' >Images of Potato Famine</a>Illustration and discription of detailsThis famine was responsible for more deaths than most wars at this time. In the summer of 1846, the blight struck ferociously spreading 50 miles per week infecting nearly very potato in Ireland. The famine led to starvation which led to diseases such as typhus, dysentary, and famine dropsy. Over 1 million people died.
  • Womens Rights

    Womens Rights
    Women's Suffrage Library of Phots Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton launched the women's rights movement in a speech in 1848, at Seneca Falls, NY. In 1869, they founded their own women’s rights party, the National Woman Suffrage Association. After many vigilent years , women won their right to vote of August 26, 1920,
  • Marxism

    Marxism began with “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848. The statement began with “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”. Throughout time the bourgeois (upper class) have oppressed the proletariat (lower class) creating a continuing tension.
  • Liberalism

    Liberalism in the nineteenth century, two part belief, Economic Liberalism and Political Liberalism. One of the most prominent advocates of Liberalism in the nineteenth century was the English philosopher John Stuart Mill.
  • Civil War

    Civil War
    Civil War map of Union & Confederate StatesA ware between the north and south pitted brother against brother. Over 600,000 soldiers died in the conflict over the 4 year period.
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Austro-Prussian War
    June 14, 1866 the Austro-Prussian War also known as German War or the Seven Weeks War.
  • Begining of Mass Education

    Mass Education was a product of the mass society of the late nineteenth century. Being educated in the early nineteenth century meant attending a secondary school or possibly even a university. Secondary and university education was primarily for the elite.
  • Franco Prussian War

    Franco Prussian War
    In 1870, Prussia and France became embroiled in a dispute over the candidacy of a relative of the Prussian king for the throne of Spain. Bismarck manipulated the misunderstanding between the French and Prussians to goad the French into declaring war on Prussia on July 15, 1870. The French proved no match for the Prussian forces. Germany joined the war effort against the French. . The Prussian armies advanced into France at Sedan, an entire French army and Napoleon III himself was captured. Paris
  • Literacy and the Mass Newspaper

    From the newly developed mass society, literacy grew, because of mass education. As, literacy in Germany, Britain, France, and Scandinavia grew at the beginning of the 20th century, so did, the increased availability of mass media, such as, the mass newspapers. The mass population became a mass reading public now exposed to information that bought millions of copies of newspapers each day. Equally important, literacy and the mass newspaper contributed to a better-informed public on a variety
  • Social Structure of Mass society

    By the end of the nineteenth century the upper-class was about 5% of the population and owned 30-40% of its wealth. The varied middle-class consisted of merchants, store owners and factory managers who were always looking to improve their lives.Last but not least was the lower class that consisted of about 80% of the population. Though they earned a small portion of wealth in their time they had the most varied of careers from servants to craftsmen.
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Viennese doctor Sigmund Freud born in 1856 created theories analyzing how the human mind works. One of his most famous works was called “The interpretation of Dreams” which consisted of the idea called psychoanalysis. Freud believed human behaviors were chosen by the unconscious, which are earlier experiences and inner forces which people are not aware of.
  • Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    Einstein's Theory of Relativity
    For the longest time everyone believed that atoms were the simplest forms of matter. However Einstein concluded that atoms are nothing more than another form of energy in his equation E= mc^2 which led to the atomic age. His revolutionary Theory of Relativity stated that time is relavent to the observer. Which changed the way we see space and time.
  • World War I Trench Warfare

    World War I Trench Warfare
    Video Trench Warfare
    Trench Warfare in WWI was horific fighting. Millions of soldiers died from this type of fighting. The living conditions were such as soldiers eating and sleeping along side of dead bodies.
  • Social Impact of Total War

    Social Impact of Total War
    WWI was so intense that many men had to leave their jobs to fight on the battlefield. As a result many women were encouraged to work in factories. By 1918 38% of the Krupp Armaments works in Germany were women.
  • Great Depression

    Great Depression
    The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century.
  • Louis Napoleon III

    Louis Napoleon III
    Louis Napoleon III was a conservative, leader of France who taught contemporaries how authoritarian governments could use liberal and nationalistic forces to strengthen their power. He was a very clever politician and very patient. It took 3 years for him to win the support of the French. Under his rule the government was very authoritarian, and he controlled the armed forces, police and civil service
  • Viet Nam War

    Viet Nam War
    The Saddest Day: Fall of SaigonFall of Saigon</a>The Viet Nam War was one of the most significant historical events of the times. The war presented tenuous times, as a new generation of the modern society took shape watching the war on the nightly news. Anti-war protests spread throughout the country. The war was support for democracy in Asia from the Americans, and the fight against communism stemming from Russia and China.