Middle Ages and The Renaissance (476- 1430 - 1600)

By rlb081
  • Period: 476 to 1430

    Middle Ages

    This was the start of the Middle Ages, also known as the Medieval Period
  • 480

    Aniclus Manlius Severinus Boethius is born

    Roman writer and statesman, music theorist, wrote "De institutione musica"
  • 524

    Aniclus Manlius Severinus Boethius dies

  • 904

    Gunpowder invented

    Chinese monks invent gunpowder
  • 991

    Guido of Arezzo is born

    music theorist, created precise pitch notation via staff, advocated sight singing through syllables, wrote "Micrologus"
  • 1000

    Bagpipes invented

    suggested that the bagpipes were introduced to Scotland by the Romans
  • 1030

    "Micrologus" is written by Guido of Arezzo

    the earliest writings on musical composition of polyphony
  • 1033

    Guido of Arezzo dies

  • 1098

    Hildegard von Bingen is born

    77 melodies, first morality play, books, poetry, paintings, known as the Sybil of the Rhine, writer, composer, theologian
  • 1130

    Bernart de Ventadorn is born

    44 songs (18 complete with melodies), troubadour, more of his music survives than any other 12th century poet
  • 1135

    Leonin is born

    also known as Magister Leonius II, "Magnus Liber", collection of organum, Master of organum purum at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris
  • 1155

    Blondel de Nesle is born

    24 courtly songs, one of the most important early trouveres, works show up in lots of manuscripts
  • 1170

    Walther von der Vogelweide is born

    poet and Minnesinger, worked at Viennese court, earliest surviving minnesinger melody
  • 1179

    Hildegard von Bingen dies

  • 1190

    Bernart de Ventadorn dies

  • 1200

    Blondel de Nesle dies

  • 1201

    Leonin dies

  • 1212

    Comtessa Beatriz de Dia dies

    1 tenso, 4 cansos, famous female troubadour, left us the only surviving melody by a female troubadour
  • 1221

    Alfonso X is born

    Spanish monarch, King of Castile and Leon, patron of literature and art, initiated the study of music at Salamanca University, helped compile "Cantigas de Santa Maria"
  • 1230

    Walther von der Vogelweide dies

  • 1238

    Perotin dies

    organum, clausulae, conductus, master of discant organum at Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, student of Leonin (?), 3-4 voice organum
  • 1239

    Moniot d'Arras dies

    23 poems, 13 melodies remain, Trouvere, wrote several genres and forms, monk at Arras
  • 1245

    Adam de la Halle is born

    chansons, musical plays, rondeaux, 7 motets, wrote polyphony
  • 1250

    Anonymous IV

    Lots unknown, fl. somewhere around 1250+, music theorist, given information about Leonin, Perotin and organum, probably a student from England.
  • 1284

    Alfonso X dies

  • 1285

    Adam de la Halle dies

  • 1291

    Philippe de Vitry is born

    treatise, motets, some isorhythmic, known as "inventor of new art", composer, theorist, bishop
  • 1300

    Guillaume de Machaut is born

    "Mass of Notre Dame", over 400 poems, 23 motets, 19 lais, 42 ballades, 33 virelais, 22 rondeaux, leading composer and poet of Ars Nova
  • Period: 1300 to 1350

    Ars Nova in France

    New Art in France, focusing on new compositional techniques like isorhythm and hocket, lots accomplished in the area of rhythm.
  • Period: 1300 to 1390

    Trecento in Italy

    flowering of music, art and culture that happened in Italy in the 1300's
  • 1320

    "Ars Nova" (Vitry)

    Treatise written by Philippe de Vitry in about 1320
  • 1325

    Francesco Landini is born

    155 works, mostly ballate and madrigals, known for cadences, virtuoso organist, blind, most celebrated musician of the Italian Trecento, instrument maker
  • 1361

    Philippe de Vitry dies

  • 1365

    "Mass of Notre Dame" (Machaut)

    polyphonic mass composed by French poet and composer Guillaume de Machaut
  • 1377

    Guillaume de Machaut dies

  • 1390

    John Dunstaple is born

    20 mass sections, 2 complete masses, 40 motets, 2 secular songs, leading English composer, created new style of 3rds and 6ths that became the Renaissance style, many works destroyed during 1536-1540
  • Period: 1390 to 1430

    Moving towards the Renaissance

    The music and artistic culture starts to shift in Europe
  • 1397

    Francesco Landini dies

  • 1397

    Guillaume du Fay is born

    7 masses, 28 mass sections, 90 motets, 15 antiphons, 27 hymns, 87 chansons, 22 motets, 13 of which were isorhythmic, Renaissance composer, used medieval cadences
  • Period: 1430 to

    The Renaissance

    secular music becomes more popular, spreads. Polyphony was the primary texture, melodies were also numerous and simultaneous. Homophony emerged in the 1500's, most masses, motets were written after 1540. Madrigals served as experiments that lead to the Baroque era
  • 1444

    "Bronze Statue of David" (Donatello)

    Work of art made by Donatello
  • 1450

    Josquin des Prez is born

    18 masses, over 50 motets, 65 chansons, considered by Martin Luther to be "the master of notes", said to have had no peer in music
  • 1450

    Heinrich Isaac is born

    36 masses, German, French, and Italian, "Choralis Constantinus", influenced German music, court composer to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in Vienna
  • 1450

    Printing Press was invented

    invented by goldsmith and inventor Johannes Gutenberg began experimenting with printing in 1440 and had a printing machine perfected and ready for commercial use nearly 10 years later
  • 1452

    Leonardo da Vinci is born

    Artist famous for making works like Mona Lisa
  • 1453

    John Dunstaple dies

  • 1466

    Ottaviano Petrucci is born

    first music printer and publisher, preserved Renaissance music
  • 1474

    Guillaume Du Fay dies

  • 1475

    "Diffinitorum musices" (Tinctoris)

    Johannes Tinctoris wrote the first dictionary of musical terms
  • 1483

    Martin Luther is born

    German hymns, writings, German theologian and composer, founder of the Lutheran Church.
  • 1510

    "Pange lingua Mass" (Prez)

    work composed by Jospuin des Prez
  • 1517

    Heinrich Isaac dies

  • 1519

    Leonardo da Vinci dies

  • 1521

    Josquin de Prez dies

  • 1535

    "Choralis Constantantinus" (Isaac)

    anthology of over 450 chant based polyphonic motets written by Heinrich Isaac, completed or published somewhere around 1535
  • 1539

    Ottaviano Petrucci dies

  • 1540

    William Byrd is born

    3 masses, 175 motets, anthems, antiphons, English, Catholic composer writing both Protestant and catholic music in England, greatest composer of his time
  • 1564

    William Shakespeare is born

    English playwright, poet, actor, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the English language, and world's greatest dramatist.
  • 1567

    "Pope Marcellus Mass" (Palestrina)

    Mass made by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina