Mathematicians of the 19th Century

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Called the "Prince of Mathematics". He published the Disquisitiones Arithmeticae at age 24. He discovered the asteroid Ceres by developing a way to calculate astronomical numbers to determine its orbit.
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Augustin Louis Cauchy

He was a prodigy who invented the calculus of residues. His theory of elasticity and his theorem of solid geometry contributed greatly to the field of mathematics. He also proved Taylor's Theorem.
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Nicolai Ivanovitch Lobachevsky

He discovered non-Euclidean geometry.
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Jakob Steiner

He made advances in synthetic geometry. His famous theorems are the Poncelet-Steiner Theorem, the Double-Element Theorem, and the Isoperimetic Theorem.
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Julius Plücker

He invented line geometry, enumerative geometry, 3D geometry, and made generalizations of projective geometry.
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Niels Henrik Abel

He was the first to prove Newton's Binomial Theorem. His most famous work discovery is called Abel's Theorem of Convergence.
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Joseph Liouville

He was first to prove the existence of transcendental numbers and he found a new proof of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity.
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Ernst Eduard Kummer

His most important discovery was "ideal numbers" and he's famous for proving Fermat's Last Theorem.
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Évariste Galois

He applied group theory to the theory of equations, and he coined the mathematical term "group". He also established the condition for algebraic solutions to exist.
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Karl Wilhelm Theodor Weierstrass

He discovered the concept of uniform convergence. He found flaws in famous proofs and made other proofs more simple. In his time he was seen as one of the most inspirational mathematicians in the world.
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George Boole

He's remembered for work in symbolic logic, algebra and analysis, and also was the first to discover invariant theory.
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Arthur Cayley

He was the founder of modern group theory, matrix algebra, the theory of higher singularities, and higher-dimensional geometry, and the theory of invariants.
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James Clerk Maxwell

He published a paper on the construction of novel ovals, at the age of 14. He also published equations of electricity and magnetism.
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Georg Cantor

He was the first to show that real numbers have a higher cardinal number than integers. He also created the famous "Continuum Hypothesis".
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William Kingdon Clifford

He is famous for predicting that gravitation could be modelled with a non-Euclidean space even before Einstein.
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Jules Henri Poincaré

He founded the theory of algebraic (combinatorial) topology. He's famouf for posing "Poincaré's conjecture" which could not be solved for a century.
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Giuseppe Peano

He discovered a continuous space-filling curve which was thought to be impossible in his time, and he laid the foundations of abstract operator theory.
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Hermann Minkowski

He founded the Convex Body Theorem, and he helped invent "Minkowski space" to deal with Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity.