Marine Biology

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Gemma Frisius determined longitude

  • Francis Bacon suggested idea of Pangea

  • Edmund Halley uses ship reports to publish global map of surface winds

  • Newton defined equilibrium

  • First Air-Replenished Diving Bell

    Designed by Edmund Halley
  • Voyage of Edmund Halley

    First scientific voyage by Edmund Halley
  • First Waterproof Suit

  • Enclosed Diving Device Developed

    John Lethbridge developed a completely enclosed, one-man diving dress
  • Harrison built the chronometer

    John Harrison made the first seagoing chronometer. A chronometer is a clock that could keep precise time.
  • Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature

    Carl Linnaeus came up with a system called binomial nomenclature, where two names are used to identify an organism; a genus and a species.
  • Dynamic theory of tides by Simon LaPlace

  • Benjamin Franklin observes maritime subjects

    Franklin announced the discovery of the Gulf Stream
  • Improved Diving Bell

    John Smeaton incorporated several improvements to the diving bell
  • First Diving Suit

    Karl Heinrich Klingert creates a device that is the first to be called a "diving suit”
  • Edward Forbes thought living organisms couldn't survive in depths of the ocean

  • U.S. Coast Survey

  • Darwin began voyage

    Darwin set sail on the HMS Beagle to conduct research, specifically in the Galapagos Islands
  • Augustus Siebe creates pracitcal diving suit

  • Darwin explained coral atolls

  • Forbes says life can't exist below 300 fathoms

  • First Modern Sounding in Deep Sea

  • Blache did systematic survey of the gulf stream

  • Louis F. de Pourtales found life over 1000 ft deep

  • The Physical Geography of the Sea

    Published by Matthew Fontaine Maury
  • James Alden discovers undersea canyon

  • Transatlantic cable revieled new marine organisms

    A transatlantic underwater cable was dug up from depths which had never before been previously explored, and the cable was found to be covered in new marine organisms.
  • Darwin published Origin of Species

    Darwin's book, "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" detailed his theory of evolution.
  • Spencer Fullerton Baird became first director of National Marine Fisheries Service

  • Operational Wireline Sounding Machine

    Invented by William Thompson
  • Louis Agassiz leads The Hassler

    New expedition
  • First marine bio lab in the U.S.

    Louis Agassiz founded the first marine biology lab in the United States. Louis was Alexander's father.
  • Undersea Mountain Discovered

    130 miles west of Portugal
  • Challenger returned to England

    Charles Wyell Thomson went on the HMS Challenger and gathered information. He reported more than 4700 new species of marine organisms.
  • Steel survey steamer

  • First Ship with Steel Rope

    Coast Survey Steamer "Blake"
  • Expedition of Agassiz

    Alexander Agassiz went on expeditions and found more samples of new marine life than the Challenger. He also theorized that color is absorbed at certain depths.
  • Seuss called continental fusion "Gondwanaland"

  • Albatross became first oceanographic research vessel

  • Blake Anchors at 2,200 Fathoms

  • Hensen defined plankton

    Victor Hensen coined the phrase "plankton," meaning all of the different organisms that drift in the sea's currents.
  • Woods Hole founded

  • Alpheus Hyatt founded Marine Biological Lab

  • Titanic sinks

  • First acoustic study of the sea

  • Wegener came up with Pangaea

    Alfred Wegener believed that at one time there was a supercontinent, which he called Pangaea. The idea of Pangaea led to the discovery of continental drift.
  • First Soundings From Acoustic Echo Sounder

  • Woods Hole Oceanic Institution founded

  • USS Stewart Plays Souns Across Atlantic Ocean

  • Meteor ship explored South Atlantic with echo sounders

  • Exploration of bathysphere

  • Automatic Telemetering Radio Sono-Buoy Invented

  • Bathythermograph Invented

    Invented by Athelstan Spilhaus
  • First aqualung created

  • Otis Barton dove in bathysphere

  • Studies on continental movement

    The continental drift
  • Miller supported hypothesis on primitive atmospheric gases

    Stanley Miller did experiments that tested the hypothesis 'heat, lightning, and radiation provided enough energy to prodce the organic molecules needed for life from the gases present in the primitive atmosphere.' His breakthrough experiments supported the hypothesis.
  • FNRS-3 is first untethered submersible

  • Trieste ship explored Mariana Trench

  • Hess defined magma

    H. H, Hess said magma was molten rock that is deep in the earth's mantle
  • Scripps used magnetometers

    Oceanographers from Scripps Institution of Oceanography used magnetometers to record patterns in the changes in polarity in the earths crust
  • Sea Tow System used

  • J.H. Connell explained niches

    Connell performed experiments on barncale species to understand how populations are in constant competition for the colonization of their habitat.
  • Vine and Matthews supported plate tectonics theory

    F.J. Vine and D.H. Matthews did an experiment on the changes in earth's magnetic field, hypothesizing that new crust formed strips of crust parallel to ridges that led to specific polarities in the magnetic field.
  • Alvin deep sea submersible is created

  • Sealab II, underwater lab

  • Period: to

    Glomar Challenger drilled for core samples

    The drilling ship Glomar Challenger gathered core samples from the ocean bottom to show evidence that the rock was youngest near the ridges of Earth's plates, showing that new crust is being formed.
  • Paine defined keystone species

    Robert Paine observed how some animals must be present in a community in order for other species to live there, and called these mandatory animals keynote species.
  • Earle lead first female aquanauts

  • Stoker noticed walrus feedings

    In relation to Nelson's ideas that only whales fed in the Bering sea
  • "Clelia" submersible

    Can withstand 6 foot wave action for optimal stability in scientific observation
  • Ballard discovered rift communities

  • Nelson discovered pits and furrows in Bering Sea

    Pits and furrows related to the feeding activities of whales and walruses
  • Observers found evidence supporting whale feeding ground in Bering

    These findings supported Nelson's main idea that it was a whale feeding ground (disincluding walruses)
  • Oliver found clam shells that proved walruses were there

  • Decline of Gulf oxygen levels recorded

  • Robert Ballard discovers Titanic shipwreck

  • First submarine

    Designed by John Holland, purhcased by U.S. Navy
  • Sea Surface Map

  • Poseidon satellite creates maps of surface of sea

  • Sea Floor Map

  • GEOSAT radar data leads to mapping of ocean floor

  • "Deep Flight 1" submersible

    Uses uncharacteristic wings to move at vertically 12 knots
  • "DeepWorker 2000" submersible

    Designed lightweight and compact with arms to allow researchers to observe with the freedom of a scuba diver, at depths of up to 2000 feet
  • Terra Earth Observing System is launched

    Measures the state of Earth's environment and climate system
  • Jason-1 satellite global ocean circulation

  • SeaWInds satellite measures ocean surface to record wind data

  • "ROV Hercules" submersible

    Like an underwater drone with multipurpose tools
  • Ocean Surface Topography Mission

    Follows up on Jason-1 mission
  • Aquarius Mission

    Argentinian Aquarius spacecraft measures Sea Surface Salinity
  • Scientists began cataloguing biodiversity of ocean

  • James Cameron dives solo into Mariana Trench