Socrates (469-399 BC)Socrates was an Athenian Greek Philosopher and regarded as one of the greatest teacher of ethics who insisted our right to think for ourselves. According to him, humans sleepwalk through life or by simply going along with the crowd and he find this dangerous in questions of morality, particularly in corporate governance where in uncovered corrupt people oftenly says "Everyone else was doing it," but in Socrates case, hewould rather die than to go against his conscience.
Plato (428-348 BC)Plato is one of the most influential Philosopher of all time and Socrates greatest desciple. He accepted the key Socratic beliefs in the objectivity of goodness and link between knowing what is good and doing it. According to Plato, justice exist in individual when the 3 elements of the soul-intellect, emotion, and desire act in harmony. The soul of the just person is harmoniously ordered under the governance of reason.
Protagoras of Abdera (490- 420 BC)Protagoras was a pre-socrates Greek Philosopher and considered as the greatest of ancient Greece. He is also a rethorical Theorist to teach the relativistic philosophy in Greece and the first Philosopher in the west to promote subjectivism. He is best known for his claim that, "Man is the measure of all things," by which he meant that everyone is relative to individual's interpretation, experience and judgement
Aristotle (384-322 BC)Aristotle based his ethics on psychological theory of human nature, insisting that we are naturally virtues, natural, social, and happiness -seeking. He argued that vitues are good habits we acquire which regulate our emotion. Aristotle's "The Golden Mean Principle," states that to be happy, one should live a life of moderation.
Epictetus (55-135 CE)Epictetus was a Greek Stoic Philosopher. He was born a slave at Hierapolis, Phyrgia and lived in Rome until his banishment when he went to Nicopolis in Northwestern Greece for the rest of his life. His teaching were written down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses and Enchirdion (Wikipedia). Epictetus' build a resilient mindset, by which he meant that we can control our thoughts, beliefs, and attitude but everything else is to some extent out of control.
Plutarch (46-119 CE)Plutarch was a Greek middle Platonist philosopher, historian, biographer, essayist, and priest of the Temple of Apollo. He is known primarily for his parallel lives, a series of biographies of illustrious Greeks and Romans, Moralia, a collection of essays and speeches (Wikipedia). His famous work, 'The Parallel Lives' which features Greek and Roman heroes like Alexander the Great, Caesar, Pericles, Cicero, aims to give young people a role model they could emulate.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)Thomas Hobbes' moral positivism anticipates the chaotic outcome if laws are not abided by. We all believe that the purpose of the government is to protect the life of its people, preserve justice, and enforce the laws. It is a must for every nation to have someone who would manage and administer them. Hence, the creation of laws and the obedience of its subjects are important in the order and maintenance of peace in countries (Roa, 2007).