MAIN HISTORICAL FACT

By Sara. L
  • Period: 16 to 18

    THE BAROQUE PERIOD

    The Baroque was a cultural period that spanned from the second half of the 1th century to the first half of the 18th century. It spread throughout Europe and Latin America, as well as other regions colonized by Europeans. It was characterised by a pessimistic view of life and the
    importance of feelings.
  • 18

    SOCIETY, POLITICS AND RELIGION.

    Cultural development in the Baroque period happened in a social, economic,
    religious and political depression. A new outbreak of bubonic plague, frequent wars and a
    long period of bad harvests suddenly slowed down demographic growth. The lack of food
    paralysed commercial development and made social differences more extreme.
  • 18

    SOCIETY, POLITICS AND RELIGION.

    The conflict between Catholics and Protestants caused huge differences at the
    heart of Europe, too. In Catholic countries spirituality affected all aspects of life, while
    Protestant countries gave more importance to individualism and economic success, which
    generated the perfect climate for the development of the bourgeoisie. At the same time, a
    division was ocurried between absolutist monarchies (France and Spain) and countries
    with parliamentary monarchies (England).
  • 18

    CULTURE

    The artistic movements were dominated by a pessimistic vision of existence, a
    consequence of the Baroque crisis. Realism triumphed, with the main objective of
    presenting reality in a truthful and even crude way. Artists wanted their audiences to be
    moved by humans’ helpless situation. For this reason, works of art were full of emotion and
    artists made use of drama, contrast, movement and over elaborate ornamentation. This period saw great developments is science and arts.
  • 18

    CULTURE

    This was largely because
    rulers and popes decided to show their power by making their cities and palaces more
    beautiful. In the world of science it was thought that the truth could be found through
    experimentation and the use of reason. In literature in this period, some of the greatest
    works in history were written by important authors such as the English William Shakespeare,
    the French Molière and the Spanish Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega and Calderón de la
    Barca.
  • 444

    er

    a. En contraste con estas artes estaban las artes mecánicas o oficios manuales: arquitectura,
    escultura, pintura y música práctica. En la Edad Media, la espiritualidad era más importante para las artes que la belleza.
    Los artistas veían sus creaciones como ofrendas a Dios y su principal objetivo era difundir la
    Fe cristiana y demostrar la autoridad de Dios y de la iglesia.
  • 476

    Middle Ages

    Middle Ages
    In 476 the Middle Ages began, it was also the fall of the Roman Empire.
  • 476

    society

    society
    Medieval society was divided into three classes:
    • The clergy: to guide people in spiritual matters.
    • The nobility: to govern and defend the territory.
    • The common people: to work in agriculture, farming, crafts, trades and commerce. During this period had an important influence on social, scientific and artistic development.
  • Mar 23, 1323

    h

    El clero estaba en el centro de gran parte de la cultura medieval. Los monasterios y
    Las catedrales tenían escuelas que enseñaban a los monjes a leer y escribir, para que pudieran copiar los
    manuscritos de los grandes autores.
  • Period: Oct 10, 1453 to

    The Renaissance

    THE RENAISSANCE Modern period began with the fall of the Byzantine empire, in 1453, and ended
    with the French Revolution, in 1789. The first centuries brought many changes. After the
    Discovery of America, trade routes and colonies were established throughout the world.
    Monarchies strengthened their power and laid the foundations of the modern state.
    Science made great advances and economic growth meant great social transformations
  • May 7, 1465

    MUSIC IN THE RENAISSANCE

    1. THE MUSICAL RENAISSANCE Music was very important to the idual that it developed a lot during this period. It was used as means of transport to disseminate information at important events and public events. Music was an important part of the education of educated people.
  • May 7, 1465

    MUSIC IN THE RENAISSANCE

    These are the main characteristics of
    Renaissance music:
    - It is always polyphonic, which means that there are always many voices.
    - There is always a balance between the voices. A voice is never emphasized
    more than others.
    - The rhythm is regular and beats smooth, except in dances.
    - The lyrics are very important and music is used to emphasize it.
  • Jul 7, 1466

    2. TEXTURES OF THE

    RENAISSANCE.
    Renaissance music developed new textures for various parts, combining them in
    different paths:
    ● Imitative counterpoint: it is a type of polyphonic texture with several similar but
    Independent melodic lines that mimic each other, starting one after the other. the
    The simplest type is canon.
  • Jul 7, 1466

    TEXTURES OF THE

    ● Homorhythmic homophony: In this texture, several melodic lines are played.
    simultaneously. The melody lines are similar, all parts play the same lyrics in the
    At the same time, they have a similar or identical rhythm and are related to each other.
    harmonically. ● Homophony dominated by melodies: In this multi-part texture, there are
    a main melodic line that can be clearly identified. The other parties perform the
    harmonic accompaniment (usually composed of chords).
  • Mar 4, 1467

    3. THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC.

    In the Renaissance, instruments began to gain in importance and compositions began to appear in purely instrumental music. An important type of instrumental music was
    the dance. Other types of instrumental compositions were the following:
    ● Compositions based on vocal music: instrumentalists, who usually accompany
    vocal pieces, he used them as the basis for instrumental works. The inspired motet
    instrumental pieces based on imitative counterpoint, such as tiento.
  • Mar 4, 1467

    THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC.

    ● Compositions with a touch of improvisation: composers began to write any
    short improvised piece of good musical quality. The artists used these
    pieces to demonstrate your technical skills, usually on keyboard instruments.
    The toccata was one of the most important forms. ● Variations: It consisted of the presentation of a brief musical theme followed by some
    variations on it (melodic, rhythmic, etc.) In Spain it was called differences.
  • Aug 7, 1468

    4. RELIGIOUS VOCAL MUSIC.

    The two most important forms of Catholic religious music are the mass and the motet.
    ● Mass. A form of music based on the union of sacred texts that use the Eucharist.
    liturgies. One of the techniques used to compose music was called cantus firmus, in
    that the composer chooses a pre-existing melody as the basis on which he builds
    a polyphonic composition and total mass.
  • Aug 7, 1468

    4. RELIGIOUS VOCAL MUSIC.

    ● The motet is a polyphonic composition without accompaniment. In the rebirth
    The motets do not overlap with different letters as they used to do in the Middle Ages.
  • Feb 1, 1469

    4. 1. The Protestant Reformation.

    Marthin Luter was the founder of the Protestant Reformation. The result was the separation between his followers, the Protestants and the Catholic Church. The Lutheran. The reform brought several changes to music:
    - The music was written in German so that the believers understood the lyrics.
    - The creation of the choir, a musical form based on songs with German lyrics that they were sung at the religious service.
  • Feb 1, 1469

    The Protestant Reformation.

    Coral became the most characteristic form
    of vocal music in Protestant rituals.
    In the Protestant regions, in addition to the corals, the psalms were important.
  • Mar 6, 1470

    4.2. The Counter-Reformation in music.

    The Council of Trent, which inspired the Counter-Reformation, established
    strict rules for writing Catholic religious music:
    - The songs were sung in Latin.
    - Any secular theme was removed.
    - The polyphony was simplified and clear so that believers could understand the lyrics.
  • Jun 3, 1471

    5. SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC.

    During the Renaissance, secular music became more important, especially since
    humanistic ideas are based on the importance and value of the human being. Composers made
    profane music that was complex and of great artistic quality, often accompanied by
    instruments.
    The most important form was the madrigal, which started in Italy and is a form of
    polyphony of four or five voices. It is usually sung a cappella, although it sometimes has
    instrumental accompaniment.
  • Jun 3, 1471

    SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC.

    Due to the influence of Humanism, the themes of the madrigals
    they were related to the emotions of human beings.
    Other forms of secular music developed in Europe: in England, numerous
    songs were written for a voice with instrumental accompaniment; in France, the same
    form (called chanson in French) for various voices with instrumental accompaniment was
    very popular.
    In Spain, the main characteristics of secular vocal music were the lyrics in Spanish and
    strong rhythms.
  • Jun 3, 1471

    SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC.

    Some of the main forms developed in Spain are:
    ● Romance: was based on popular poetic ballads that told both real and fictional things.
    stories. It consisted of four different musical phrases and sometimes had instrumental accompaniment.
    ● Christmas Carol: It is also of popular origin. Its name comes from the melodies that the peasants (villanus) sang in the villages. A Christmas carol consisted of three parts: chorus, verse, and
    chorus .
  • Jun 3, 1471

    SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC.

    Only one voice sang it, to the accompaniment of a stringed instrument. That
    It could also be performed by various a cappella voices. ● Salad: this composition was a combination of different forms, languages ​​and
    polyphonic textures. It was a mix of comic and serious themes. It was very popular
    at courtly events.
  • Jun 21, 1492

    Middle Ages

    Middle Ages
    Shortly after the year 1492 was the discovery of America
  • Period: to

    CULTURAl

    Fausto de Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • MUSIC

    MUSIC
    Bach dies.
  • Period: to

    POLITICS

    The Industrial Revolution begins.
  • CULTURAL

    First encyclopedia publication.
  • Period: to

    POLITICS

    Seven Years' War.
  • Music

    Around 1770, the style called Sturm und Drang emerged, inspired by a kind of literary proto-romanticism.
  • CULTURE

    Burney's "History of Music" publication
  • POLITIC

    French Revolution
  • Period: to

    MUSIC

    Early romanticism
  • Period: to

    POLITIC

    spanish war of independence
  • Period: to

    CULTURE

    Zorrilla
  • MUSIC

    Giacomo Paccini
  • Period: to

    CULTURE

    The novel 'María', by Jorge Isaacs, 150 years of the classic Spanish-American Romanticism.
  • Period: to

    POLITICS

    First World War
  • POLITICS

    The discovery of penicillin