Important Dates in Special Education

  • Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka

    Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
    It was a landmark civil-rights decision handed down from the United States Supreme Court. The ruling said that schools couldn't be separated by color. Prior to this ruling school were segregated by color. The Supreme Court said that this was unequal and unconstitutional. This ruling helped open up the door for Special Education reform based on the equal for all citizens.
  • President's Panel on Mental Retardation

    President's Panel on Mental Retardation
    President John F. Kennedy appoints a 26 member committee to search for solutions when it came to mental retardation. The panel consisted of outstanding physicians, scientists, educators, lawyers, psychologists, and social scientists. The goal was to combat mental retardation. The goals may have been a bit off, but Kennedy knew that mental retardation could not be ignored.
  • PARC vs. Pennsylvania

    PARC vs. Pennsylvania
    Pennsylvania Association of Retarded Citizens vs. Pennsylvania was a lawsuit filed against the schools of Pennsylvania because they were refusing children with disabilities a free and appropriate education. The school thought the children should go to special schools. PARC won the ruling and another important step is made.
  • Mills vs. DC Board of Education

    Mills vs. DC Board of Education
    Mills was a civil action brought to the Federal US District Court by the families of seven children with disabilities. The children were denied an education because their home schools said that they couldn't fulfill their special needs. The home school also said that they would not be able to cover all of the expenses that would be needed to educate the students with disabilities. The ruling was in favor of the plaintiffs (Mills). This was another big step forward in Special Education Reform.
  • The U.S. Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    The U.S. Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    Designed to "level the playing field." The U.S. Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in programs conducted by Federal agencies, in programs receiving Federal financial assistance, in Federal employment, and in the employment practices of Federal contractors. Federal funding would be taken away to those that discriminate against individuals with disabilities.
  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act or PL 94-142 was a huge stride for Special Education Reform. The act said that all public schools receiving federal funding most provide a free and appropriate education (FAPE) for all students with disabilities between the ages of 5-21. Schools were order to evaluate those students and create a game plan with the parents to ensure the best possible education(IEP). Students were to be taught in the least resrtictive environment (LRE).
  • The American with Disabilities Act of 1990

    The American with Disabilities Act of 1990
    Signed by President George H. W. Bush in 1990, the ADA is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. Disability is defined by the ADA as "a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity."
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    The IDEA was a statue to the EAHCA of 1975. Signed by President Clinton, the act called for early detection of children with disabilities before they enter school and to provide needed services. Individual Education Programs (IEP's) were also a part of this act. It was the act goal to bring the parents and schools together to form an educational program. This act also wanted disable children learning with their non-disable peers.
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    Signed by President Bush in 2002. NCLB is a law that requires state-wide assessments for all students in grades 3-8 and one assessment during high school. The assessments are created by the individual states and are to include math/reading/science. States determine what is proficiency is acceptable. In Iowa students must work to be above the 41st percentile. There has been a large amount of negative responses to this act since its creation, mostly by educators.
  • IDEA 2004

    IDEA 2004
    The law was reauthorized by Congress in 2004, prompting a series of changes in the way special education services are implemented. IEP's were to be improved upon by making progress reports mandatory. Transitional services were also an important addition to the IEP. The IDEA 2004 also made better defined rules on the discipline for students with disabilities. Students cannot be suspended for more than 10 days if there suspension is a result of the disability.