Period: Jan 11, 1250 to
IB studied music
Period: Jan 31, 1250 to Jan 31, 1450
medievalUse of modes
monophonic textures - plainsong
polyphonic textures - organum
Composers : Machaut, Dufay, Dunstable
Music from 800
Period: Jan 31, 1450 to
Renaissance musicComposers : Josquin, Tallis, Palestrina, Monteverdi, Byrd
Based on modes (with accidentals)
4 or more voice parts
Blending strands in musical texture
Church music - contrapuntal
Secular music - vocal pieces, dances, some instrumental pieces.
Renaissance instruments - many forming families
PalestrinaKyrie II from Missa Iste confessor
Example of contrapuntal texture, imitation, melisma
Baroque musicComposers : Lully, Purcell, Vivaldi, Bach, Handel
Homophonic texture then polyphonic textures return
Viols replaced by violin family, string section basis of the Baroque orchestra
modes replaced by major-minor key system
Main forms used : binary, ternary, variations, ritornello, fugue
Main types of music: chorale, opera, overture, sonata concerto
energetic rhythms, flowing, ornamented melodies, contrasts
corelliSonata a tre Op3 no2 last movement
Example of imitation and inversion
classical musicHaydn, Mozart, Beethoven, JC Bach, CPE Bach, Gluck
clearer texture than Baroque, mainly homophonic.
grace and beauty of melody and form
variety and contrast within a piece, frequent changes of mood
clearly marked cadences
orchestra increases in size, woodwind becomes a section
harpsichord replaced by the piano - alberti bass accompaniment
importance to instrumental music - sonata, trio, quartet, symphony, concerto
sonata form the most important design
HaydnTrauersinfonie Hob I/44 Finale
Example of sequence
romanticismWeber, Schubert, Berlioz, Chopin, Schumann, Liszt, Wagner, Verdi, Smetana, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Dvorak, Grieg, Rimsky-Korsakov, Elgar, Mahler, Strauss
Freedom in form and design, intense expression of emotion.
lyrical melodies, adventurous modulations. richer harmonies, chromaticism
denser textures, dramatic contrasts, wide range of pitch, dynamics, timbre, expansion of orchestra - brass
recurring themes to bring unity - idee fixe.
weberOverture to Der Freischutz
Example of tremolo
debussyString Quartet op10 Assez vif
example of ostinato, impressionism
Debussy - Voiles
20th Century musicClassical :
Debussy, Sibelius, Schoenberg, Bartok, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Messiaen, Cage, Stockhausen .....
impressionism, atonality, microtonality, nationalism, expressionism, musique concrete, pointillism, electronic music, jazz influences, serialism, polytonality, neoclassicism, aleatoric
holstMars from the Planets, Op 32
Example of ostinato, col legno
Bartokstring quartet no. 6 2nd movt - an example of glissando and tremolo
Muddy Waters Hoochie Coochie ManComposed by Willie Dixon and recorded on the Chess label.
Willie Dixon - composer, producer and bass player, was an important influence on the development of what became known as Chicago Blues.