History of the atom

  • 460 BCE

    Democritus is born

  • 430 BCE

    The old atomic theory

    Democritus' mentor came up with the hypothesis in 465 bc. But it was later adopted and revised by Democritus. It states that atoms are miniscule amounts of matter, that they cannot be destroyed, they differ in size & temperature, that they are always moving, and that they are invisible in miniscule amounts of matter, that they cannot be destroyed, they differ in size & temperature, that they are always moving, and that they are invisible
  • Antoine Lavoisier's birth

    Antoine Lavoisier's birth
    Antoine Lavoisier was born in 1743 and lived in Paris.
    He named the elements carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen. Discovered hydrogen's role in combustion & respiration;
    established that water is compound of oxygen & hydrogen. discovered that sulfur is an element
  • Birth of John Dalton

    Birth of John Dalton
    John Dalton lived from 1766-1844 in England. He coined the name “Daltonism” for the condition of colorblindness in 1798
  • Law of conversation of mass

    Antoine did a lot of experiments that involved burning charcoal and diamonds. The results showed that the mass was the same before and after the reaction. This lead him to help construct the Law of Conservation of Mass in 1778
  • Naming of oxygen

    Antoine Lavoisier named oxygen and found out it makes up 20% of air.
  • Dalton's law of partial pressures

    came up with Dalton’s law of Partial Pressures which states that in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.
  • New Atomic Theory

    John Dalton coined the new atomic theory & was the first to prepare a table of atomic weights.
  • JJ Thomson's Birth

    JJ Thomson's Birth
    Cheetham Hill, UK
    near Manchester, UK
  • Max Planck is Born

    Max Planck is Born
    -Planck is born in kiel, Germany
    -he later studied studied at university of Berlin and earned his doctorate at Munich
  • Marie Curie is born in Warsaw, Poland

    Marie Curie is born in Warsaw, Poland
    -Attended a "floating university" which is just a set of informal, underground classes which were held in secret.
    -During WWI, she helped with championing the use of portable x-rays
    -First woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize
    -First person to win two Nobel Peace Prizes
  • Robert Millikan Born

    Grew up in Morrison Illinois, went to high school in Iowa and got his doctorate degree in Physics at Columbia University
    Known for his measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for contributing on the photoelectric effect.
  • Ernest Rutherford was born

    Ernest Rutherford was born
    Ernest Rutherford was born in New Zealand as the youngest of four.
  • Einstein is born

    Einstein is born
    -born in Ulm, Germany
    -Grew up in germany, and italy
    -earned his diploma from Swiss polytechnic school in Zurich
  • Habilitation thesis

    Habilitation thesis
    -Equilibrium states of isotropic bodies at different temperatures.
  • Niels Bohr is born

    Niels Bohr is born
    Niels Henrik David Bohr is born is Copenhagen, Denmark on October 7, 1885.
  • Erwin Schrodinger is born

    Erwin Schrodinger is born
    Erwin Schrodinger is born in Vienna, Austria on August 12, 1887.
  • James Chadwick is born in Cheshire, England

    James Chadwick is born in Cheshire, England
    -Head of the British Mission attached to the Manhattan Project
    -His hobbies include gardening and fishing
    -WWI prisoner
  • Louis De Broglie Born

    Lived in Dieppe, France
    Made tremendous contributions to the Quantum Theory
  • JJ Thomsom discovered electrons

    He used high voltage magnets to break up atom to smaller subatomic particles and discovered electrons.
  • Marie Curie discovers 2 elements.

    Marie Curie discovers 2 elements.
    Marie Curie discovers 2 elements: polonium and radium. She discovers them by separating uranium from a pitchblende, realizing the residue was more radioactive than the uranium.
  • Ernest Rutherford- Alpha and Beta Rays

    When working with JJ Thomson in England, they confirmed the existence of alpha beta rays by experimenting with the magnetic properties of iron exposed to high frequency vibrations.
  • Werner Heisenberg is born

    Werner Heisenberg is born
    Werner Karl Heisenberg is born in Würzburg, Germany, on December 5, 1901.
  • Marie Curie wins her first Nobel Peace Prize

    Marie Curie wins her first Nobel Peace Prize
    Marie Curie wins her first Nobel Peace prize for her and her husband's discovery of radium and polonium
  • JJ Thomson created the Plum Pudding model

    JJ Thomson created the Plum Pudding model
    He suggested a model of a sphere with positive charge and electron surrounding the sphere.
  • Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    Einstein's Theory of Relativity
    -didnt actually publish theory until 1915
    -foundation of atomic energy
    -discovered E=mc² (energy equals mass times the velocity of light squared)
    - Einstein's Most Famous Thought Experiment was "Chasing a Beam of Light" which he conducted at the age of 16
  • JJ Thomson won a noble prize for physics.

    JJ Thomson won many awards within his career in physics, but his most famous is his Noble Prize for work in Physics
  • Ernest Rutherford-nucleus

    Ernest Rutherford-nucleus
    One of the most famous works of Rutherford was his discovery and naming of the nucleus where the protons and neutrons lie.
  • Robert Millikan discovery

    He found his information with his famous oil-drop experiment, which showed tiny charged droplets of oil between two horizontal metal electrodes. Ultimately, this measured elementrey electric charge, or in other words, the charge of the electron.
  • Marie Curie wins her second Nobel Peace Prize

    Marie Curie wins her second Nobel Peace Prize by her further research into radium and its radioactivity.
  • First Solvay World Conference

    The first Solvay World Conference which had some of the greatest minds such as Albert Einstein, Max Planck, and Marie Curie
  • James Chadwick goes to Germany

    James Chadwick goes to Germany where he later was sent to a prison camp due to World War I
  • Period: to

    World War I

  • Plack wins Noble Prize in Physics

    Planck was awarded with the noble prize in phsics due to his influential discoveries
  • Period: to

    Erwin Schrödinger studies at the University of Zürich

    Erwin Schrödinger studies at the University of Zürich from 1921 to 1927.
  • Niels Bohr wins the Noble Prize

    Niels Bohr wins the Noble Prize for Physics in 1922.
  • Robert MIllikan wins Noble Peace Prize

    He won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1923 for his work in experimental physics.
  • Louis De Broglie forms famous hypothosis

    In his PhD thesis he created the Brogile Hypothosis, which explained the wave nature of electrons and suggested that all matter has wave properties. This hypothosis formed the central part of the theory of quantum mechanics.
  • Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen is published

    Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen or Quantum-Theoretical Reinterpretation of Kinematic and Mechanical Relations in english, was a paper that was written with the premise that theory should only be based on observable values.
  • Erwin Schrödinger writes the basis of quantum wave mechanics.

    Erwin Schrödinger writes the basis of quantum wave mechanics.
  • Niels Bohr presents his complementarity principle

    Niels Bohr presents his complementarity principle at a meeting in Como, Italy in 1927
  • Period: to

    Erwin Schrödinger studies at the University of Berlin

    Erwin Schrödinger studies at the University of Berlin from 1927 to 1933.
  • Über den anschulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik is published

    Über den anschulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik or On the Perceptual Content of Quantum Theoretical Kinematics and Mechanics in english is published talking about uncertainty or indeterminacy.
  • Louis De Broglie wins Nobel Peace Prize

    He was the first major scientist that wanted a multi-national laboratory, which led to the creation of the European Organization for Nuclear Research
  • James Chadwick discovers the neutron

    James Chadwick discovers the neutron by using radiation to hit certain targets (such as helium or paraffin wax)
  • Erwin Schrödinger wins the Nobel Prize

    Erwin Schrödinger share the Nobel Prize with Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac in 1933
  • Erwin Schrödinger leaves Germany

    Erwin Schrödinger leaves Germany because he was Jewish and would not be able to live in a country where Hitler was coming to power.
  • Heisenberg wins the Nobel Prize

    Heisenberg won the Peace Prize in 1932. However it was not awarded until November 1933.
  • Marie Curie dies

  • James Chadwick is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

    James Chadwick is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his discovery of the neutron which paves the way for other experiments.
  • Ernest Rutherford dies

    Rutherford passed away in his home on October 19, 1937 at the age of 66.
  • Period: to

    World War II

  • JJ Thomson died.

    He passed away in the same town he had lived in his whole life, Machester, at the age of 84.
  • Start of the Manhattan Project

    The Manhattan project was a top-secret United States government research project that did research on uranium to produce a weapon, leading up to the discovery and the dropping of the atomic bomb. Many famous scientist were working on it, such as James Chadwick.
  • Niels Bohr escapes occupied Denmark

    Niels Bohr escapes occupied Denmark in 1943. He escapes to England and receives a letter from James Chadwick asking him to join him for the development of the atomic bomb.
  • James Chadwick is knighted

  • Max Planck dies

    Planck died at age of 89 in Gottingen, Germany
  • CERN is founded

    CERN is founded on December 9, 1949 in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Niels Bohr writes the "Open World" letter to the UN

    Niels Bohr writes the "Open World" letter to the UN in 1950. The letter proposes the sharing of the nuclear programs with the USSR so that a post-war nuclear arms race could be avoided. This resulted in Winston Churchill accusing Bohr as a traitor and a soviet spy.
  • Einstein Israeli President??

    Einstein Israeli President??
    -Einstein was offered presidency by Isreali prime minister
    -Albert turned down the offer because he was not inclined to manage a whole country and the citizens of it
  • Robert Millikan Death

  • Erwin Schrödinger dies

    Erwin Schrödinger dies on January 4, 1961 in Vienna, Austria.
  • Niels Bohr dies

    Niels Henrik David Bohr dies on November 18, 1962 in Copenhagen, Denmark
  • James Chadwick dies

  • Werner Heisenberg dies

    Werner Karl Heisenberg dies on February 1, 1976 in Munich, Germany.
  • Planck's Constant

    Planck's Constant
    -Planck is considered the "father of the Quantum theory after discovering that electromagnetic energy could be emitted only in quantized form
    -light and other electromagnetic waves are emitted in discrete packets of energy that he called "quanta"
    -discovered formula: E = hν (E=energy h= the planck constant v=frequency)