The atom web 2x

Atomic Discoveries

  • 460 BCE

    Democritus

    Democritus
    He was born, in Abdera, Thrace. Democritus besides being an excellent scientist, he was also a very good philosopher and he had some studies in astrology. Democritus, according some reports, he always was looking the funny side of the problems he found daily.
  • 442 BCE

    Democritus hypothesis

    Democritus hypothesis
    He believed that atoms are tiny invisible particles which are indestructible and unchangeable and that they do not have internal structure. He also stated that the atoms have different shape, size, mass, position, or arrangement. Democritus made a deduction in which he started to cut and cut a stone and after he cut it various times he deduced that after a certain time the stone will convert very small that he could not see it more. So he named it "atomos" that means in Greek indivisible.
  • 370 BCE

    Death of Democritus

    Death of Democritus
    He died.
  • Antoine Lavoisier

    Antoine Lavoisier
    Antoine Lavoisier was Born in August 26, Paris, France. Lavoisier married Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze
  • Lavoisier as a student

    Between the ages of 11 and 18, Antoine was educated at Collège des Quatre-Nations, a college of the University of Paris. He studied general subjects there, including the sciences in his final two years.
  • Lavoisier: a successful young man

    The year he obtained his license to practice law, he also published his first scientific paper. In the same year he read a paper to the elite French Academy of Sciences. He was elected to the French Academy of Sciences in 1769, aged just 26.
  • Jhon Dalton

    Jhon Dalton
    Jhon Dalton was born in Eaglesfield Cumberlad, England
  • Lavoisier discoverie

    Diamond was placed in a glass jar. They used a magnifying glass to focus the sun’s rays on it. The diamond burned, disappeared. People didn't understand the process of burning. They had confused theories, like the theory of phlogiston, an undetectable substance which had negative mass! Lavoisier discovered that phosphorus or sulfur burned in air, made acidic products. They weigh more than the original ones, suggesting the combination with something in the air to produce acids.
  • Lavoisier & Priestley

    Joseph Priestley visited Paris. He told Lavoisier about the gas produced when he decomposed the compound we now called mercury oxide. This gas supported combustion much more powerfully than normal air. Priestley believed the gas was a particularly pure version of air. He started calling it dephlogisticated air, believing its unusual properties were caused by the absence of phlogiston.
  • Lavoisier's Sulfur

    Lavoisier's Sulfur
    Lavoisier correctly identified sulfur as an element. He had carried out extensive experiments involving this substance and observed that it could not be broken down into any simpler substances
  • Mercury by Lavoisier

    Lavoisier found that when mercury oxide is heated its weight decreases. The oxygen gas it releases has exactly the same weight as the weight lost by the mercury oxide.
  • Profound investigation by Lavoiser: oxygen

    Profound investigation by Lavoiser: oxygen
    Lavoisier coined the name oxygen for the element released by mercury oxide. He found oxygen made up 20 percent of air and was vital for combustion and respiration. He also concluded that when phosphorus or sulfur are burned in air, the products are formed by the reaction of these elements with oxygen.
  • The discovery of hydrogen by Lavoisier

    The discovery of hydrogen by Lavoisier
    Lavoisier coined the name ‘hydrogen’ for the gas which Henry Cavendish had recognized as a new element in 1766; Cavendish had called the gas inflammable air.
  • Lavoisier Publications

    Lavoisier published his groundbreaking Elementary Treatise on Chemistry.
  • Lavoisier's gossips

    Lavoisier was branded a traitor because of his involvement with taxation. He was also unpopular with revolutionaries because he had supported foreign scientists whom the revolutionaries wished to strip of their assets.
  • Lavoisier's death

    Lavoisier's death
    He died in May 8, París. He was 50 years old.
    https://www.famousscientists.org/antoine-lavoisier/
  • Lavoisier the innocent

    In a U-turn, the French government found Lavoisier innocent of all charges. By then, of course, it was too late: he was just another innocent victim of the revolution’s Reign of Terror.
  • Dalton's experiments

    Dalton's experiments
    He measured the capacity of the air to absorb water vapour and the variation of its partial pressure with temperature.
    He defined partial pressure in terms of a physical law whereby every constituent in a mixture of gases exerted the same pressure it would have if it had been he only gas present .
    Dalton experiments on gases led to his discovery that the total pressure of a mixture of gases amounted to the sum of the partial pressures that each individual gas occupy the same space.
  • Dalton's atomic theory

    Dalton's atomic theory
    Dalton's atomic theory stated that:
    1. Everything is composed of atoms, which are the indivisible building blocks of matter and cannot be destroyed.
    2. All atoms of an element are identical.
    3. The atoms of different elements vary in size and mass.
    4. Compounds are produced through different whole-number combinations of atoms.
    5. A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms. He also believed that an atom was a hard sphere
  • Dalton's death

    Dalton's death
    He died in Manchester.
  • JJ Thomson

    JJ Thomson
    Joseph John Thomson was born in December 18th (Cheetham,
    Manchester, United Kingdom). He was a Scientist, Physicist and a
    mathematician.
  • Max Planck

    Max Planck
    He is known as "The father of quantum physics". Planck was born in Kiel, North-Germany. Planck came from an old fashioned, intelligent family. He was a close friend of the most famous scientist in history, Albert Einstein, and was one of those who helped him most in his process, giving importance and recognition to his theory of relativity.
    He studied a PhD at the University of Münich, and made his thesis on the second principle of thermodynamics.
  • Marie Curie

    Marie Curie
    Born in Warsaw (Poland)
    She was agnostic.She received basic education in her native country in the “Flying university of Warsaw". She went to France to study at Sorbonne, where she met her husband Pierre Curie. She completed a PhD: When she left his university studies as the best of his class, she decided to exploit her potential further.
    https://historia-biografia.com/marie-curie/
  • Robert Andrews Millikan

    Robert Andrews Millikan
    He Was Born. He attended at the Maquoketa High school (Iowa)
    and to the Oberlin College in Ohio.
  • Ernest Rutherford

    Ernest Rutherford
    He was born in Brightwater, New Zealand on August- 30th, he was a chemist and a physicist.
    https://www.biography.com/people/ernest-rutherford-39099
  • Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was born, he was a German mathematician and physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity.
  • Thomson as a student

    Thomson as a student
    Thomson finished his studies in the Trinity College of the Cambridge University. He obtained the bachelor’s degree in math and physics.
  • Neils Bohr

    Neils Bohr
    Born: 7 October Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bohr wed Margrethe Nørlund. The couple would have six children; four survived to adulthood and one, Aage, would become a well known physics scientist as well. He was also a professor in different universities.
    https://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Chemistry-Concepts Intermediate/section/5.6/
  • Erwin Schrödinger

    Erwin Schrödinger
    He was born on August 12 in Vienna, Austria.
    Erwin Schrödinger went on to become a noted theoretical physicist and scholar who came up with a groundbreaking wave equation for electron movements. He also graduated with a Ph.D. in physics and he was director of the school of theoretical physics of the Institute of Advanced Studies in Dublin.
  • James Chadwick

    James Chadwick
    James Chadwick (Lord James Chadwick) was born on Manchester, England.
  • Louis de Broglie

    Louis de Broglie
    Was born in Dieppe, France.
    He leaned towards the natural sciences.
    Louis de Broglie's brother Maurice was also a physicist who undertook experimental atomic physics experiments in a homemade laboratory at their family's mansion.
  • Rutherford's family

    Rutherford's family
    He met and fell in love with Mary Newton, they get married in 1900 and later welcomed a daughter, that they named Eileen.
  • "Radioactivity" by Marie Curie

    "Radioactivity" by Marie Curie
    Curie experimented with the uranium rays and discovered that they remained constant, regardless of the condition or form of the uranium. She suggested that the rays came from the element's atomic structure. This idea created the field of atomic physics. Curie used the word "radioactivity" to describe this.
    Also, when Marie discovered that the thorium element radiated an energy similar to the uranium. She called this property of energy emission "Radioactivity"
  • Millikan and incandescent surfaces

    Millikan and incandescent surfaces
    He received a doctorate for research on the polarization of light emitted by incandescent surfaces. In the University of Columbia.
  • Rutherford's discovery of "alpha" "beta"

    Rutherford's discovery of "alpha" "beta"
    At the University of Cambridge’s Cavendish Lab, Rutherford identified a more commercially viable means of detecting radio waves then focusing on uranium, Rutherford discovered that placing it near foil resulted in one type of radiation being easily soaked up or blocked, while a different type had no trouble penetrating the same foil. He labeled the two radiation types “alpha” and “beta.”Alpha particle was identical to the nucleus of a helium atom. The beta particle was identical to an electron.
  • Thomson's electrons

    Thomson's electrons
    Thomson discovered a new particle inside the atoms, this particle is called “Electrons”, by doing the cathode experiment. With this discovery he established a new atomic model
  • The discovery of the Polonium and Radium

    The discovery of the Polonium and Radium
    The Curies extracted uranium from the pitchblende. Marie realized that the pitchblende produced more radiation than the uranium extracted from it. Marie suspected that there were other elements in the pitchblende that emitted more radiation than the uranium itself. With the help of her husband she refined the pitchblende, in order to find the source of the radiation. Thus discovering the RADIO and the POLONIO
    https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/curies-isolate-radium
  • Planck Constant

    Planck Constant
    The famous scientist was able to determine how much energy resided in these packages called "quanta", from the multiplication of energy by time. The constant equals: 6,626 068 96 x 10-34 J s
    https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Plancks-constant
  • Quantum Theory & Planck Postulate

    Quantum Theory & Planck Postulate
    Max Planck proposed that energy is radiated in small quantities, which he called "quanta". Planck Postulate: Planck also devised a formula for the measurement of electromagnetic radiations emitted from an object, using the following equation: E = hf. Where E is energy, H is a constant and F is the frequency of radiation.
    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Max-Planck
    Planck postulate | Revolvy
    https://www.revolvy.com/page/Planck-postulate
  • Werner Karl Heisenberg

    Werner Karl Heisenberg
    On December 5, 1901, the German physicist and
    philosopher was born son of August Heisenberg and
    Annie Heisenberg.
  • Marie's first Nobel Prize

    Marie's first Nobel Prize
    She was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physics, along with his husband and physicist Henri Becquerel.
  • Albert Einstein's hypotesis

    Albert Einstein's hypotesis
    Albert Einstein determined that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers, and that the speed of light in a vacuum was independent of the motion of all observers. E=MC2: E represents units of energy, M represents units of mass, and C2 is the speed of light squared, or multiplied by itself.
  • Thomson's physics Nobel Prize

    Thomson's physics Nobel Prize
  • Rutherford's experiment & Nuclear model

    Rutherford's experiment & Nuclear model
    Rutherford made an experiment involving firing alpha particles at foil, then he discovered that nearly the total mass of an atom is concentrated in a nucleus and he proposed a model called the nuclear model and this led the invention of the atomic bomb.
  • Chadwick's education

    Chadwick's education
    He attended Manchester High School prior to entering Manchester University
  • Rutherford's Nobel Prize

    Rutherford's Nobel Prize
    He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
  • Millikan's experiments

    Millikan's experiments
    He began a series of experiments to determine the electric charge carried by a single electron. He began by measuring the course of charged water droplets in an electric field. The results suggested that the charge on the droplets is a multiple of the elementary electric charge, but the experiment was not accurate
    enough to be convincing.
    https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=millikan+experiment&&view=detail&mid=F32DF451EB56B143B7A8F32DF451EB56B143B7A8&&FORM=VDRVRV
  • "Louis", the historian

    "Louis", the historian
    Studied literary studies at the Sorbonne in Paris and graduated with a degree in history.
  • Millikan's experiments

    Millikan's experiments
    He determined the exact charge of the electron with his “falling-drop method” To made the experiment, he needed: He need two
    charged capacitor plates.The illumination which is a source of ionizing radiation. The oil droplets and a microscope.
    http://slideplayer.com/slide/7808327/25/images/43/The+Millikan+Oil-Drop+Experiment.jpg
  • Millikan's formulas

    Millikan's formulas
    He charged the plates in different ways and different combinations and observed the different reactions of the oil droplets.
    He discovered the Electron Charge: −1.602 176 565(35)×10−19
    https://www.britannica.com/science/electron-charge
  • Marie´s second Nobel Prize

    Marie´s second Nobel Prize
    She won her second Nobel Prize, this time in chemistry (Polonium & Radium discovery). She was the first person to win this award in two different areas.
  • Bohr's studies

    Bohr's studies
    He received his master's and doctorate in physics. Bohr traveled to Cambridge, England, where he was able to follow the Cavendish Laboratory work of scientist J.J. Thomson.
    https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/quantum-physics/atoms-and-electrons/a/bohrs-model-of-hydrogen
  • Louis inspirations

    Louis inspirations
    Obtained a degree in physics. Gravitated to the field of atomic physics after hearing from his brother about the work being done by the German physicists Max Planck and Albert Einstein.
  • Rutherford & Chadwick

    Rutherford & Chadwick
    Chadwick studied under the work of Ernest Rutherford, they work together in the discovery of the radiation in elements.
  • Bohr's Theory

    Bohr's Theory
    Niels Bohr proposed a theory for the hydrogen atom based on quantum theory that energy is transferred only in certain well defined quantities.
    Electrons should move around the nucleus but only in prescribed orbits.When jumping from one orbit to another with lower energy, a light quantum is emitted.
    Bohr's theory could explain why atoms emitted light in fixed wavelengths.
  • De Broglie during the World War I

    De Broglie during the World War I
    Served during World War I under the French army at the radio tower in the Eiffel Tower. Took a strong interest in the technicality of physics.
  • Millikan during the World War I

    Millikan during the World War I
    Millikan was Vice-Chairman of the National Research Council, playing a major part in developing anti-submarine and meteorological devices.
  • Schrödinger during the 1st World War

    Schrödinger during the 1st World War
    He was recruited for the First World War, serving with the Austro-Hungarian military forces in Italy as an artillery officer.
  • Heisenberg

    He stayed at the Maximilian Gymnasium in München
    until 1914, when, on the occasion of from the outbreak of World War I 1914-1919, the dependencies of this center of studies they were occupied by military personnel. Seeing his institute turned into a barracks, the young man Heisenberg decided to continue studying on his own, especially those subjects like the Mathematics, the Physics and the Philosophy that more attracted him.
  • Planck's Nobel Prize

    Planck's Nobel Prize
    Max Planck was the winner of the Nobel Prize in physics "In recognition of the services he has provided to the advancement of physics through his discovery of energy quanta."
  • Thomson's life as a teacher

    Thomson's life as a teacher
    Thomson was designated as Trinity College’s Principal where he was the teacher of Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford.
  • Heisenberg illness

    He contracted typhus, a disease that
    seriously affected him due to the difficulties that, in the
    post-war period. However, Heisenberg managed to re-establish himself thanks to his vigorous state of health, and shortly after
    he obtained his bachelor's degree after having passed
    the exams they put him in the Maximilian Gymnasium.
  • Rutherford & nuclear reactions

    Rutherford & nuclear reactions
    He discovered how to artificially induce a nuclear reaction in a stable element.
  • The foundation of the Institute of Theoretical Physics by Bohr

    The foundation of the Institute of Theoretical Physics by Bohr
    He founded the university’s Institute of Theoretical Physics, which he would head for the rest of his life.
  • Heisenberg

    The prestigious Maximilianeum Foundation, an
    institution, offered, throughout the German territory,
    eleven help to enter the university. One of them
    allowed the young Heisenberg to enroll at the
    University of Munich in 1920.
  • "The Cancer Cure" Radiotherapy

    "The Cancer Cure" Radiotherapy
    She proposed that radiotherapy could be effective against cancer. She traveled to the United States to raise funds and continue investigating this hypothesis.
  • Einstein's Nobel Prize

    Einstein's Nobel Prize
    He won the Nobel Prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.
  • Neils Bohr's Nobel Prize

    Neils Bohr's Nobel Prize
    He won the Nobel Prize in physics for his ideas and years later, after working on the Manhattan Project in the United States, called for responsible and peaceful applications of atomic energy across
    the world.
  • Heisenberg

    The prestigious Maximilianeum Foundation, an
    institution, offered, throughout the German territory,
    eleven help to enter the university. One of them
    allowed the young Heisenberg to enroll at the
    University of Munich in 1920.
  • Chadwick & the Cavendish Laboratory

    Chadwick & the Cavendish Laboratory
    He was appointed assistant director of research at the Cavendish
    Laboratory and experimented with elements by bombarding them.
  • Heisenberg

    He displayed an intense study and research
    activity that allowed him to get his doctorate in
    1923 with a thesis that dealt with the turbulence of
    fluids
  • Broglie's theories

    Broglie's theories
    He published his doctorate thesis, Research on the Theory of the Quanta. He postulated the wave nature of electrons and the proposal of wave-particle duality. His research found that in terms of physical properties, particles sometimes acted like particles and sometimes they acted like waves; thus, the 'duality'.
    Albert Einstein supported de Broglie's theory, even though de Broglie had developed this theory without any backing from experiments.
  • Heisenberg

    In mid-1924, he obtained the qualification that
    enabled him to teach at any Higher education center
    of your native country. However, he preferred to
    continue during some time expanding their
    knowledge and their vital horizons abroad, which is
    why, in September of that same year, he returned to
    Copenhagen to work closely again with Bohr, thanks
    to a scholarship granted by the Rockefeller
    Foundation.
  • Heisenberg

    Convinced, then, that it was necessary and urgent to
    give a new formulation, much more broad and exact,
    to Bohr's quantum theory, he returned to Göttingen in
    the summer of 1925 and, under Max Born's teaching,
    he undertook, in collaboration with an outstanding
    student called Pascual Jordan, the hard work of
    establishing the mathematical foundations they made
    possible knowledge of the structure and behavior of
    atoms.
  • Quantum Atom model by Schrödinger

    Quantum Atom model by Schrödinger
    Erwin Schrödinger, an Austrian physicist, took the Bohr atom model one step further. Schrödinger used mathematical equations to describe the likelihood of finding an electron in a certain position. This atomic model is known as the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
  • Heisenberg

    In 1926, after having unveiled the matrix mechanics
    that had developed together Born and Jordan, Werner
    Karl Heisenberg revisited the Institute of Physics in
    Copenhagen,where, for several months, he served as
    professor of theoretical physics and collaborated
    closely with Niels Bohr
  • Broglie introducing wave mechanics

    Broglie introducing wave mechanics
    De Broglie's theory was experimentally proven by scientists Lester Germer and Clinton Davisson. Became known as the de Broglie hypothesis led to the birth of wave mechanics, which became an essential branch in physics.
  • Heisenberg

    The particles, in quantum mechanics, do not follow
    defined trajectories. so it is impossible know exactly
    the value of all the physical quantities that describe
    the state of movement of the particle in no time, but
    only a statistical distribution. For the it is not possible
    to assign a trajectory to a particle.
  • Heisenberg

    Heisenberg devoted himself to spreading his theories throughout the
    world. For this, he published The Principles
    physicists of the Quantum Theory (1928) and toured several
    countries giving courses and conferences
    (Japan, United States, India, etc.)
  • Broglie´s Nobel Prize

    Broglie´s Nobel Prize
    Received a Nobel Prize for his discoveries.
  • Heisenberg

    Elaborated, together with Pauli, a quantization method hat allowed to determine a space grid, For that time, combining his teaching duties with his indefatigable research vocation, published an extensive essay, consisting of three parts, in which I dared to propose a novel theory about the nucleus of the atom. There he spoke of a nuclear structure affected by the energy interactions of their respective components, time that
    described the stabilities of each of them
  • Rutherford "the president of physics"

    Rutherford "the president of physics"
    He was also elected president of the Institute of Physics.
  • Chadwick's experiments

    Chadwick's experiments
    Chadwick discovered that bombarding the beryllium with alpha
    particles ejected protons from the nuclei of various substances that
    releases an unknown radiation. He interpreted that radiation as being composed of particles of mass approximately equal to that of the proton but without electrical charge neutrons.
  • The Nazis & Einstein

    The Nazis & Einstein
    The Nazi regime put a $5,000 bounty of his head.
  • Schrödinger's Nobel Prize

    Schrödinger's Nobel Prize
    He won Nobel Prize in Physics, along with British physicist Paul.A.M
  • Loss of a great woman "Marie Curie"

    Loss of a great woman "Marie Curie"
    Marie died. She died of aplastic anemia, which is presented by prolonged exposure to radiation from her experiments, so we can say that she died for her passion, science.
  • Chadwick's Nobel Prize

    Chadwick's Nobel Prize
    He received a Nobel prize for de discovery of the neutron, creating a new atomic model, the model with the neutral charged neutrons.
  • Schrödinger's cat experiment

    Schrödinger's cat experiment
    He created a different thought experiment, called Schrödinger's Cat, to illustrate his concerns. In the Schrödinger's Cat experiment, a cat is placed inside a sealed box with a radioactive substance and a poisonous gas. If the radioactive substance decayed, it would release the gas and kill the cat. If not, the cat would be alive.
  • Rutherford's Death

    Rutherford's Death
    He died on October-19th, in Cambridge, England at the age of 66 from the complications of a strangulated hernia. https://www.biography.com/people/ernest-rutherford-39099
  • The death of Thomson

    The death of Thomson
    He died in august 30th (Cambridge, United Kingdom). He died of 86 years
  • Planck's death

    Planck's death
    His death was caused by an acute myocardial infarction. He died of 89 years. Something interesting is that he was a great musician but he decided to stay in the area of physics. His motto was "preserve . and continue working". There are also many things named after him, including an asteroid.
    https://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/p/planck.htm
  • Broglie's Kalinga Prize

    Broglie's Kalinga Prize
    Received the Kalinga Prize professor of theoretical physics at the newly founded Henri Poincaré Institute.
  • Death of Millikan

    Death of Millikan
    Died on December 19 in San Marino, California. Millikan was the President of the American Physical Society, Vice-President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, was the American member of the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations, and the American representative at the International Congress of Physics. He earned 25 doctorates, the French Legion of Honour and the Chinese order of Jade.
    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Robert-Millikan
  • The great loss of humanity "Einstein"

    The great loss of humanity "Einstein"
    He died of 76 years.
  • Schrödinger's Death

    Schrödinger's Death
    Schrödinger died of tuberculosis on January 4 in Vienna. He was 73 years old.
    https://www.biography.com/people/erwin-schrdinger-9475545
    https://www.thoughtco.com/erwin-schrodingers-cat-4173102
  • Heisenberg

    He was placed in charge of the Institute Max Planck of Physics and Astrophysics, in Göttingen, who was transferred to Munich in 1958. He continued directing this institution, in its new
    locations, until 1970 that retired. attracted by Philosophy, and, especially, by Western thought that relates evolution spiritual social of man with advances in Science. So, I think essays like: Physics and Philosophy and Beyond Physics
  • The death of the "neutron discoverer"

    The death of the "neutron discoverer"
    He died on Cambridge, after a life working with radiation to
    improve the knowledge about the elements of the periodic table.
    https://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/c/chadwick.htm
    https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1935/chadwick/biographical/