• Jan 10, 1543

# Nicolaus Copernicus- Heliocentric Model

Heliocentrism, or heliocentricism,[1] is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around a relatively stationary Sun at the center of the Solar System.
• # Falling Objects

Galileo Galilei discovered that both heavy and light objects fall toward Earth with the same acceleration if the effect of air resistance is eliminated.
• # Kepler's 2 Laws

Johannes Kepler published his first 2 laws:
1.The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
2.A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time
• # Johannes Kepler's 3rd Law

Johannes Kepler published the 3rd planetary motion law:
3.The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
• # Blaise Pascal -Pascal's law

formulated Pascal's law in the 1650s stating that the pressure applied to a fluid taken in a closed container is transmitted with equal force throughout the container, proved that air has weight and that air pressure can produce a vacuum
• # Newton introduces classical Physics to the world

Newton proposed the three laws of motion in which objects moved because they were being pulled or pushed by FORCES. This lay the foundation for the Industrial Revolution: steam engines - locomotives and ships, bridges, dams skyscrapers. He then applied his theory of forces to the universe itself by proposing the new theory of gravity - he compared the falling of an apple with the falling of the moon.
• # Robert Hooke- Law of elasticity and springs

Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance is proportional to that distance. That is, F= k x, where k is a constant factor characteristic of the spring, its stiffness.
• # Christiaan Huygens' theory of light

Sir Isaac Newton, held the theory that light was made up of tiny particles. In 1678, Dutch physicist, Christiaan Huygens, believed that light was made up of waves vibrating up and down perpendicular to the direction of the light travels, and therefore formulated a way of visualising wave propagation.
• # Isaac Newton - Gravity

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation inverse square law and mass dependence of gravity.
• # Isaac Newton - Light

The Corpuscular Theory of Light
Newton proposed this theory that treats light as being composed of tiny particles:
1.Every source of light emits large numbers of tiny particles known as corpuscles in a medium surrounding the source.
2.These corpuscles are perfectly elastic, rigid, and weightless
• # Edmund Halley

Edmund Halley noticed that three previous comets are the same and predicts its return in 1758. This helped Newton's theory of light
• # Daniel Bernoulli-Introduced fluid mechanics

He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics. His name is commemorated in the Bernoulli principle, a particular example of the conservation of energy, which describes the mathematics of the mechanism underlying the operation of two important technologies of the 20th century: the carburetor and the airplane wing
• # Charles-Augustin de Coulomb

formulated a law in 1785 which described the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles (attraction and repulsion) and was essential to the development of the theory of electromagnetism,
• # Henry Cavendish-Gravity constant

The Cavendish experiment, performed in 1797–98 by British scientist Henry Cavendish, was the first experiment to measure the force of gravity between masses in the laboratory,[1] and the first to yield accurate values for the gravitational constant G.
• # Alessandro Volta- Electric battery

built the first electric battery (the voltaic pile) in the 19th century, did substantial work with electric currents, namesake of the unit of electric potential: the volt
• # Thomas Young

Young made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology
• # Joseph von Fraunhofer-Spectrocospe

He is known for the discovery of the dark absorption lines known as Fraunhofer lines in the Sun's spectrum, and for making excellent optical glass and achromatic telescope objectives.
• # Andre Ampere

discovered that two parallel electric currents will exert forces on each other.
• # Georg Ohm

stated his law of electrical resistance in 1826, expressing the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in an electric circuit.
• # William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin-

Lord Kelvin is widely known for determining the correct value of absolute zero as approximately -273.15 Celsius. The existence of a lower limit to temperature was known prior to Lord Kelvin, as shown in "Reflections on the Motive Power of Heat", published by Sadi Carnot in French in 1824, the year of Lord Kelvin's birth. "Reflections" used -267 as an estimate of the absolute zero temperature. Absolute temperatures are stated in units of kelvin in his honour.
• # Michael Faraday- Law of Induction

Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831; however, Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments.[7][8] In Faraday's first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic induction (August 29, 1831[9]), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer). Based on his assessment of recently discovered properties of electromagnets
• # Heinrich Lenz

Law of electromagnetic forces
• # Christian Doppler

theory of Doppler Effect for sound and light

Faraday's laws of electrolysis are quantitative relationships based on the electrochemical researches published by Michael Faraday in 1834.Faraday's 1st Law of Electrolysis - The mass of a substance altered at an electrode during electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity transferred at that electrode. Quantity of electricity refers to the quantity of electrical charge, typically measured in coulomb.
Faraday's 2nd Law of Electrolysis - For a given quantity of D.C electr
• # Christian Doppler

first described how the observed frequency of light and sound waves is affected by the relative motion of the source and the detector, a phenomenon which became known as the Doppler effect.
• # Gustav Kirchhoff

Kirchoff's laws of electrical networks
• # James Prescott Joule,

Joule published results from his series of experiments (including the paddlewheel experiment) which show that heat is a form of energy, a fact that was accepted in the 1850s
• # James Clerk Maxwell

discovered the distribution law of molecular velocities. Maxwell showed that electric and magnetic fields are propagated outward from their source at a speed equal to that of light and that light is one of several kinds of electromagnetic radiation, differing only in frequency and wavelength from the others.
• # Maxwell introduces the theory of "Fields" to explain light

James Clerk Maxwell based on Michael Faraday's discovery of electricity and magnestism, developed a theory of light, not based on Newtonian forces, but on a new concept called "Fields". He demonstrated the field lines by sprinkling iron filings on a magnet on a sheet of paper - they rearranged themselves in a web like pattern. He explained the electric field lines in the same way - our hair stands on end when we touch a source of static electricity.
• # Heinrich Hertz- Electromagnetic waves

Hertz is distinguished from Maxwell and Hughes because he was the first to conclusively prove the existence of electromagnetic waves by engineering instruments to transmit and receive radio pulses using experimental procedures that ruled out all other known wireless phenomena
• # Nikola Tesla-Alternated current (AC)

His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse
• # Wilhelm Röntgen- X-Ray Discovery

A German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901
• # J. J. Thomson -Discovery of electron

British physicist who discovered electrons and isotopes, and invented the mass spectrometer.
• # Max Planck- Introduced quantum

Quantum mechanics is the theory of atoms and subatomic systems

was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the only woman to win in two fields, and the only person to win in multiple sciences. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.
• # Albert Einstein- Photoelectric effect

explained experimental data from the photoelectric effect as being the result of light energy being carried in discrete quantized packets. This discovery led to the quantum revolution. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for "his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".[4]
• # Niels Bohr- Bohr''s Model

Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
• # Robert A. Millikan- Charge quantization

was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for his measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.
• # Albert Einstein-General relativity

General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime
• # Ernest Rutherford- Split the atom-Proton discovery

He is widely credited with first "splitting the atom" in 1917 in a nuclear reaction between nitrogen and alpha particles, in which he also discovered (and named) the proton
• # Louis de Broglie-Wave particle duality

In his 1924 PhD thesis he postulated the wave nature of electrons and suggested that all matter has wave properties. This concept is known as wave-particle duality or the de Broglie hypothesis. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929
• # Wolfgang Pauli- Pauli's exclusion

is the quantum mechanical principle that no two identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously
• # Erwin Schrödinger- Schrödinger equations

formulated the Schrödinger equation in 1926 describing how the quantum state of a physical system changes with time, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933, two years later
• # Werner Heisenberg - uncertainty principle

the uncertainty principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously.
• # Georges Lemaître-expansion of universe-Big bang

He was the first person to propose the theory of the expansion of the Universe, widely misattributed to Edwin Hubble.[2][3] He was also the first to derive what is now known as Hubble's law and made the first estimation of what is now called the Hubble constant, which he published in 1927, two years before Hubble's article
• # Edwin Powell Hubble- Hubble's Law

Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that: (1) objects observed in deep space (extragalactic space, ~10 megaparsecs or more) are found to have a Doppler shift interpretable as relative velocity away from the Earth; and (2) that this Doppler-shift-measured velocity, of various galaxies receding from the Earth, is approximately proportional to their distance from the Earth for galaxies up to a few hundred megaparsecs away
• # Enrico Fermi- Neutrino

The neutrino[nb 1] was postulated first by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain how beta decay could conserve energy, momentum, and angular momentum (spin). In contrast to Niels Bohr, who proposed a statistical version of the conservation laws to explain the event, Enrico Fermi proposes "neutrino" as the name for Pauli's postulated particle. He formulates a quantitative theory of weak particle interactions in which the neutrino plays an integral part.
• # John Bardeen- Transistor invention

was an American physicist and electrical engineer, the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon N Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory.