Index

Eveloution of the Atomic Theory

  • J. L. Proust

    J. L. Proust
    He developed the use of hydrogen sulfide as a reagent (a substance used to detect the presence of other substances by the chemical reactions it causes).
  • J. L. Proust

    J. L. Proust
    He recognized that the proportions of the components of a chemical compound are always the same, no matter what method he used to prepare the compound.
  • Thomas Young

    Thomas Young
    Discovered the cause of astigmatism.
  • Thomas Young

    Thomas Young
    Addressed a phenomenon known as interference. He observed that when light from a single source is separated into two beams, and the two beams are recombined, the combined beams produce a pattern of light and dark fringes.
  • John Dalton

    John Dalton
    Calculated atomic weights from percentage compositions of compounds, using an arbitrary system to determine the likely atomic structure of each compound.
  • Thomas Young

    Thomas Young
    Helpied in developing the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory. This theory postulated that there were three distinct types of cones in the retina and that each one of the types was sensitive to a particular color, either red, green, or blue.
  • John Dalton

    John Dalton
    Dalton's experiments on gases led to his discovery that the total pressure of a mixture of gases amounted to the sum of the partial pressures that each individual gas exerted while occupying the same space.
  • Heinrich Hertz

    Heinrich Hertz
    Hertz opened the way for the development of radio, television, and radar with his discovery of electromagnetic waves.
  • Antoine Lavoisier

    Antoine Lavoisier
    succeeded in producing more and better gunpowder by increasing the supply and ensuring the purity of the constituents—saltpeter (potassium nitrate), sulfur, and charcoal—as well as by improving the methods of granulating the powder.
  • Ernest Marsden

    Ernest Marsden
    Marsden observed that a tiny fraction of alpha particles fired at a thin gold foil were deflected straight back.
  • Pierre Curie

    Pierre Curie
    Pierre submitted his doctoral thesis It concerned various types of magnetism, and contained a presentation of the connection between temperature and magnetism that is now known as Curie's Law.
  • Ernest Rutherford

    Ernest Rutherford
    Invented a detector for electromagnetic waves.
  • Marie Curie

    Marie Curie
    Marie discovered that thorium gives off the same rays as uranium. Her continued studies of the various chemical compounds gave the surprising result that the strength of the radiation did not depend on the compound that was being studied. It depended only on the amount of uranium or thorium.
  • J.J Thomson

    J.J Thomson
    Made an original study of cathode rays culminating in the discovery of the electron.
  • Ernest Rutherford

    Ernest Rutherford
    Reported the existence of alpha and beta rays in uranium radiation and indicated some of their properties.
  • Marie and Pierre Curie

    Marie and Pierre Curie
    They had demonstrated strong grounds for having come upon an additional very active substance that behaved chemically almost like pure barium. They suggested the name of radium for the new element.
  • Max Planck

    Max Planck
    Was able to deduce the relationship between the energy and the frequency of radiation. This was based on the revolutionary idea that the energy emitted by a resonator could only take on discrete values or quanta. The energy for a resonator of frequency v is hv where h is a universal constant, now called Planck's constant.
  • Marie and Pierre Curie

    Marie and Pierre Curie
    Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the Nobel Prize in Physics.
  • J.J Thomson

    J.J Thomson
    He discovered a method for separating different kinds of atoms and molecules by the use of positive rays.
  • J.J Thomson

    J.J Thomson
    Won the Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Ernest Rutherford

    Ernest Rutherford
    Won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • Hans Geiger

    Hans Geiger
    Geiger and colleague J. M. Nuttall developed the Geiger-Nuttall rule, which states that a linear relationship exists between the logarithm of the range of alpha-particles and the radioactive time constant, which is involved in the rate of decay of emitting nuclei.
  • Hans Geiger

    Hans Geiger
    Geiger created a measuring device that had the ability to count the number of alpha particles and other ionizing radiation being emitted. This was the first version of the Geiger counter.
  • Niels Bohr

    Niels Bohr
    He succeeded in working out and presenting a picture of atomic structure.
  • Ernest Marsden

    Ernest Marsden
    Correlated nuclear charge by the atomic number,
  • Max Planck

    Max Planck
    Won the Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Ernest Rutherford

    Ernest Rutherford
    During his last year at Manchester, he discovered that the nuclei of certain light elements, such as nitrogen, could be disintegrated by the impact of energetic alpha particles coming from some radioactive source, and that during this process fast protons were emitted.
  • Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein
    Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas.
  • Albert Einsein

    Albert Einsein
    He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.
  • Niels Bohr

    Niels Bohr
    Recognition of his work on the structure of atoms came with the award of the Nobel Prize.
  • Arthur Compton

    Arthur Compton
    He discovereed that the increase of wavelength of x-rays due to scattering of the incident radiation by free electrons, which implies that the scattered quanta to have less energy than the quanta of the original beam. (Known as the compton affect)
  • Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
  • Pual Dirac

    Pual Dirac
    Produced a mathematical equivalent which consisted essentially of a noncommutative algebra for calculating atomic properties.
  • Irene Curie

    Irene Curie
    Prepared a thesis on the alpha rays of polonium
  • Enrico Fermi

    Enrico Fermi
    Fermi discovered the statistical laws, nowadays known as the «Fermi statistics», governing the particles subject to Pauli's exclusion principle.
  • Erwin Schrödinger

    Erwin Schrödinger
    Invented Schrödinger's wave equation.
  • Arthur Compton

    Arthur Compton
    Compton was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
  • Pual Dirac

    Pual Dirac
    Theory of the electron
  • Louis de Broglie

    Louis de Broglie
    Conferred him the Nobel Prize for Physics "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons".
  • Carl David Anderson

    Carl David Anderson
    Began his cosmic-ray studies.
  • Louis de Broglie

    Louis de Broglie
    Between 1930 and 1950, Louis de Broglie's work has been chiefly devoted to the study of the various extensions of wave mechanics: Dirac's electron theory, the new theory of light, the general theory of spin particles, applications of wave mechanics to nuclear physics, etc.
  • Carl David Anderson

    Carl David Anderson
    Made the discovery of the positron.
  • James Chadwick

    James Chadwick
    Made a fundamental discovery in the domain of nuclear science: he proved the existence of neutrons - elementary particles devoid of any electrical charge.
  • Werner Heisenberg

    Werner Heisenberg
    Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1932.
  • Werner Heisenburg

    Werner Heisenburg
    Theory of quantum mechanics: Mechanical quantities, such as position, velocity, etc. should be represented, not by ordinary numbers, but by abstract mathematical structures called "matrices" and he formulated his new theory in terms of matrix equations.
  • Carl David Anderson

    Carl David Anderson
    He obtained the first direct proof that gamma rays from ThC generate positrons in their passage through material substances.
  • Erwin Schrödinger

    Erwin Schrödinger
    Shared Nobel Peace Prize with Dirac the Nobel Prize
  • Enrico Fermi

    Enrico Fermi
    He demonstrated that nuclear transformation occurs in almost every element subjected to neutron bombardment. This resulted in the discovery of slow neutrons that same year, leading to the discovery of nuclear fission and the production of elements lying beyond what was until then the Periodic Table.
  • Enrico Fermi

    Enrico Fermi
    The Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to him.
  • Carl David Anderson

    Gold Medal of the American Institute of City of New York
  • Irene Curie

    Irene Curie
    Shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with her husband.
  • Carl David Anderson

    Carl David Anderson
    Sc.D. of Colgate University
  • Carl David Anderson

    Carl David Anderson
    Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute
  • Otto Hahn And Fritz Strassmann

    Otto Hahn And Fritz Strassmann
    Unexpectely produced barium
  • Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann

    Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann
    Became the first to recognize that the uranium atom, when bombarded by neutrons, actually split
  • Otto Frisch

    Otto Frisch
    Frisch demonstrated that the fissioning of uranium had the potential to create a volatile chain reaction which, when using uranium-235, could be used to develop an extremely destructive weapon.
  • Wolfgang Pauli

    Wolfgang Pauli
    First to recognize the existence of the neutrino, which is an uncharged and massless particle which carries off energy in radioactive ß-disintegration.
  • Otto Hahn

    Otto Hahn
    Hahn won the nobel prize for chemistry.
  • Carl David Anderson

    Carl David Anderson
    Presidential Certificate of Merit
  • Wolfgang Pauli

    Wolfgang Pauli
    Helped to lay the foundations of the quantum theory.
  • Wolfgang Paulie

    Wolfgang Paulie
    Won the Nobel Prize for Physics
  • Irene Curie

    Irene Curie
    Irène took part ithe creation and in the construction of the first French atomic pile.
  • James Chadwick

    James Chadwick
    He received the Copley Medal (1950) and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia (1951).
  • Louis de Broglie

    Louis de Broglie
    He received the gold medal of the French National Scientific Research Centre.
  • Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig

    Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig
    The concept enabled him to predict decay events and the existence of the Xi zero particle, which was experimentally detected.
  • Carl David Anderson

    Carl David Anderson
    John Ericsson Medal of the American Society of Swedish Engineers
  • Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger

    Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger
    The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles".
  • Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig

    Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig
    Murray Gell-Mann won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to elementary particle physics.