History of the Atom

  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton
    Newton proposed a mechanical universe with small solid masses in motion. Proposed a mechanical universe with small solid masses in motion.
  • Lavoisier

    French chemist, considered the founder of modern chemistry. He clarified the concept of an element as a simple substance that could not be broken down by any known method of chemical analysis, and he devised a theory of the formation of chemical compounds from elements.
  • Lavoisier atomic model

    Lavoisier atomic model
  • Couloumb

    The Couloumb Law, which states that that the force between two electrical charges is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
  • John Dalton

    John Dalton
    English man, who formed the atomic theory, which states that matter is structured by tiny atoms that are all alike.
  • John Dalton Atomic model

    John Dalton Atomic model
    Proposed an "atomic theory" with spherical solid atoms based upon measurable properties of mass.
  • William Crookes

    William Crookes
    English man, who invented the Crookes Tube, demonstrated that cathode rays travel straight and produce phosphorences and heat with certain materials.
  • William Crookes Tube

    William Crookes Tube
    Discovered cathode rays had the following properties: travel in straight lines from the cathode; cause glass to fluoresce; impart a negative charge to objects they strike; are deflected by electric fields and magnets to suggest a negative charge; cause pinwheels in their path to spin indicating they have mass.
  • Henri Becquerel

    Henri Becquerel
    French man, who discovered x rays by observing the fluorescence they produce.
  • Radioactivity experiment Becquerel

    Radioactivity experiment Becquerel
    While studying the effect of x-rays on photographic film, he discovered some chemicals spontaneously decompose and give off very pentrating rays.
  • Marie Curie

    Marie Curie
    French woman, who discovered radium and polonium when investigating radioactive substances.
  • marie curie atomic model

    marie curie atomic model
    She and her husband Pierre also discovered the radioactive elements polonium and radium.
  • J.J. Thomson

    J.J. Thomson
    English man, first one to discover the electron.
  • Max Plank

    Max Plank
    He stated the quantum theory.
  • Quantum Theory max Planck

    Quantum Theory max Planck
    used the idea of quanta (discrete units of energy) to explain hot glowing matter.
  • Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein
    known as the creator of the special and general theories of relativity and for his hypothesis of the particle nature of light.
  • Albert Einstein Atomic Model

    Albert Einstein Atomic Model
    Published the famous equation E=mc 2
  • Robert Millikan

    Robert Millikan
    American physicist, best known for his work in atomic physics, dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces.
  • Ernest Rutherford

    Ernest Rutherford
    British physicist, who became a Nobel laureate for his pioneering work in nuclear physics and for his theory of the structure of the atom.
  • Rutherford atomic theory

    Rutherford atomic theory
    Using alpha particles as atomic bullets, probed the atoms in a piece of thin (0.00006 cm) gold foil . He established that the nucleus was: very dense,very small and positively charged. He also assumed that the electrons were located outside the nucleus.
  • Niels Bohr

    Niels Bohr
    Bohr made many contributions to the understanding of the atomic structure and the quantum mechanics.
  • Bohr atomic model

    Bohr atomic model
    Developed an explanation of atomic structure that underlies regularities of the periodic table of elements. His atomic model had atoms built up of sucessive orbital shells of electrons.
  • Hans Geiger

    Hans Geiger
    Hans was the first scientist who explained the DNA.
  • hans geiger Experiment

    hans geiger Experiment
    Developed an electrical device to "click" when hit with alpha particles.
  • Erwin Shroedinger

    Erwin Shroedinger
    Austrian- Shroedinger Equation, a wave equation that describes the form of the probability waves that govern the motion of small particles and how these waves are altered by external influences.
  • Erwin Schroedinger

    Erwin Schroedinger
    Viewed electrons as continuous clouds and introduced "wave mechanics" as a mathematical model of the atom.
  • Chadwick

    English- discovered the neutrally-charged neutron.
  • Chadwick Model

    Chadwick Model
    Using alpha particles discovered a neutral atomic particle with a mass close to a proton. Thus was discovered the neutron.
  • Otto Hahn

    Otto Hahn
    German- discovered nuclear fission, in which the nucleus of an atom breaks up into two separate nuclei, while experimenting with uranium.
  • Otto Hahn

    Otto Hahn
  • Glen T. Seaborg

    Glen T. Seaborg
    USA- isolated and identified elements heavier than uranium, and in the process, added elements number 94 - 102, and 106.
  • Glen T. Seaborg Discovery of Elements

    Glen T. Seaborg Discovery of Elements
    Synthesized 6 transuranium elements and suggested a change in the layout of the periodic table.
  • Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig

    Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig
    USA - brought forth the idea of "quarks", little bits of matter which when used kind of like building blocks, serve to explain some complex chemical substances.
  • Murray Gell-Mann and George Atomic model

    Murray Gell-Mann and George Atomic model