History of Special Education and Inclusive Education

  • First School of Special Education (1817)

    First School of Special Education (1817)
    In 1817, the American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb was the first school of Special Education to be establish in the United States. This school was located in Hartford, Connecticut and ran by Hopkins Gallaudet. During this time period those who could not speak were considered dumb. Education was soon provided in many asylums as it served as moral therapy. Today this school is named American School for the deaf.
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

    Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
    The Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation was not constitutional, even if resources were dispersed equally. The federal government took this first step to advocate for students who experienced inequality and prejudice at school, and it paved the way for future legislation for people with disabilities. Although, it did not successfully segregated all the schools, it was the beginning of the Constitution realizing there was racial inequality sparking the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Department of Public Welfare v. Haas (1958)

    Department of Public Welfare v. Haas (1958)
    The state of Illinois along with the public welfare department brought about charges to Edward Haas to imposed on his son’s education. Unfortunately, Edward couldn't afford such charges and fought against them. As a result, the Supreme court of Illinois ruled that education laws did not have to provide a free public education for “feebleminded” or “mentally deficient” students. They believed that the students could not benefit from good education due to their “limited intelligence",
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) – (1965)

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) – (1965)
    The federal government was responsible for ensuring the access to public education for students with disadvantageous backgrounds. When enacted there was a large “achievement gap” stratified by race and poverty. To eliminate the gap in education funding, a national curriculum was established, and Federal funding was made available for primary and secondary education. While, setting goals to measure students progress, hold schools accountable and increase the quality of education.
  • PARC v. Pennsylvania. (1971)

    PARC v. Pennsylvania. (1971)
    This case dealt with the exclusion of children with mental retardation. It expressed that children needed to occupy the mental age of 5 before 1st grade. As a result, many were denied from attending schools. Parents fought on behalf of students with mental retardation. It was agreed that educational placement decisions must include a process of parental participation and a means to resolve disputes. This case guaranteed special education for children with intellectual disabilities.
  • Mills v. District of Columbia (1972)

    Mills v. District of Columbia (1972)
    This court case was brought on behalf of 7 students with disabilities. These students were excluded from public schools and denied an education. The district of Columbia claimed it did not have enough funding for special education services without hindering the general education program. As result, it brought about the Child Find mandate in which the general education keep records of students’ progress or disabilities in order to refer to Special Education teacher.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
    Initially, this act was put in place by Congress to ensure that all children with disabilities had access to an education. Extending free and appropriate education to children with disabilities (ages 3-5) and early intervention for infants/ toddlers with disabilities (ages birth to 2). They put in place a procedure that held state and local educational agencies accountable for providing educational services for all handicapped children.
  • Hendrick Hudson v. Rowley (1982)

    Hendrick Hudson v. Rowley (1982)
    Amy Rowley and her parents were the ones who were the subject of this ruling. Sadly, she didn't receive appropriate educational needs. It was evident that she didn't receive adequate education due to the disparity between her actual achievement and her potential. In spite of receiving passing grades, Amy didn't receive the right accommodations. For instance, she is unable to understand half of the subject matter without a language interpreter. Britannica
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990)
    In addition to ensuring each student receives a Free Appropriate Public Education, the law was enacted to protect students with disabilities. Additionally, the law aims to provide additional services and safeguards to students who have disabilities. These services include small group instruction or teaching modifications that meet the needs of students. These services are customized to meet the educational needs of each individual student according to an individualized education plan.
  • No Child Left Behind Act (2001)

    No Child Left Behind Act (2001)
    This legislation was passed in order to offer students the opportunity to receive an education in a safe environment, taught by well-trained teachers. The tools used were state assessments, annual reports, and school improvement plans. All students would achieve higher levels of achievement, school system would improve functionality, and gaps would be eliminated. Despite its well-intended intentions,
    it presented problems with federal funds. Youtube
  • ESSA (2002)

    ESSA (2002)
    Obama established this act as a commitment to equal opportunity for all students. Serving as a replacement to the NCLB act. ESSA included many components of NCLB, but provided additional opportunities to fulfill their duties when students aren’t achieving their academic goals. Students with low performance will benefit from improved educational outcomes. As a result, state and local governments are held responsible for monitoring student performance and determining sanctions.