Horace Mann and Massachusetts initiated compulsory schooling provisions. The theory was that if all students were required to go to school, it would serve as a social equalizer (p. 19); however, children with disabilities were excluded. This would eventually lead to a “dual system of education” (p. 19).
Ungraded classrooms on the rise
By the early 1900s, “ungraded” classrooms were on the rise and thus, administrators with the skills and knowledge to operate and oversee these types of special education programs
First IQ test developed by Alfred Binet
IQ tests essentially sorted students by determining who
were intelligent”, and who were not; those deemed by these assessments as “feeble-minded” were separated and often institutionalized or placed in “ungraded” classes. Administrators were hired and put in charge of these facilities or programs, the beginnings of special education administrators.
Polio increases special education classes
As Polio became an epidemic, special education classes were increasingly needed to respond to students affected by the disease who now had physical and orthopedic concerns
Brown vs. Board of Education
Civil rights legislation which ensures public schools serve all children. Though it centered around race and segregation, it began conversation around equal access for all, regardless of racial, physical, or intellectual differences. As a result of increasing equal access, the country realizes that there is a need for specialized administrators who are experienced in the areas of child development, emotional support, and vocational readiness programs
Public Law 85-926 passes
PL 85-926 is passed as a result of the Association for Retarded Childen (ARC) lobbying efforts for legal and financial support for better programs for children with intellectual disabilities (then known as mental retardation). This law set the stage for federal funding for special education programs. During this time, parent advocacy groups are on the rise, and special education administrators are required to become skilled in dealing with politics and advocacy.
Special Education Administration Preparation Classes
Due to the Education for All Handicapped Children's Act and federal grant monies, 4 universities increasingly add special education administration preparation programs.
Creation of the University Council for Educational Administrators (UCEA)
The University Council for Educational Administrators (UCEA) is created as a result of a federal grant. The national council focuses on improvements to administrator preparation classes
Need for specialized administrators articulated
The need for specialized administrators with knowledge of legislation and the ability to work with the strong advocacy groups growing in number across the country, is articulated.
in the field of special education
An increase in special education administration university programs
By 1970, 20 universities across the country were offering programs to address special education administration
PA Association for Retarded Children v. The Commonwealth of PA
Major win for parents, who won the guarantee that students with intellectual disabilities could benefit from needs-based instruction.
Larry P v. Riles Case
Court ruled that any assessments administered to students did not discriminate based on race.
Mills v. Board of Education
Class action lawsuit filed on behalf of children with disabilities in Washington DC. The district was ordered to educate ALL students, even students with disabilities. Additionally, it determined that special procedures had to be used for the determination of special services and for dispute resolution.
Section 504 of the Rehabilition Act is created
"Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act was the first disability civil rights law to be enacted in the United States. It prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in programs that receive federal financial assistance, and set the stage for enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act. " (https://dredf.org/.../section-504-of-the-rehabilitation-act-of-1973)
Education for All Handicapped Children Act Public Law 94-142 enacted
This law mandates that public schools provide services for all students and established the importance of the least restrictive environment. This caused a shift in thinking in terms of placement for students with disabilities.
name changed to Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) and PL 108-446; it added a focus on transition
No Child Left Behind Act
This act increases accountability for all students, which causes some to question if that includes students with significant special needs. It also called for inclusion, creating some confusing around total inclusion. If these students were totally included, would there be a need for separate "special" education administrators?
Reauthorization of IDEA
EHA amended and reauthorized, which raises standards for the instruction of students with special needs
Reauthorization of IDEA aligns special education with general education in that it emphasized the need for students with disabilities to have the same access to highly qualified teachers teaching core subjects so that these students would do well on state assessments. Additionally, it emphasized improving student outcomes for students with special needs.
Every Student Succeeds Act (EESA)
Signed by President Obama, EESA requires that all students, regardless of disability, race, etc., be taught to high academic standards. It reduces the control of the federal government, and giving more control to states and LEAs.