Special education book 260nw 152079998

History of Special Education Administration

  • Initiation of compulsory schooling provisions

    Initiation of compulsory schooling provisions
    Horace Mann and Massachusetts initiated compulsory schooling provisions. The theory was that if all students were required to go to school, it would serve as a social equalizer (p. 19); however, children with disabilities were excluded. This would eventually lead to a “dual system of education” (p. 19).
  • Ungraded classrooms on the rise

    By the early 1900s, “ungraded” classrooms were on the rise and thus, administrators with the skills and knowledge to operate and oversee these types of special education programs
  • First IQ test developed by Alfred Binet

    IQ tests essentially sorted students by determining who
    were intelligent”, and who were not; those deemed by these assessments as “feeble-minded” were separated and often institutionalized or placed in “ungraded” classes. Administrators were hired and put in charge of these facilities or programs, the beginnings of special education administrators.
  • Polio increases special education classes

    As Polio became an epidemic, special education classes were increasingly needed to respond to students affected by the disease who now had physical and orthopedic concerns
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    Civil rights legislation which ensures public schools serve all children. Though it centered around race and segregation, it began conversation around equal access for all, regardless of racial, physical, or intellectual differences. As a result of increasing equal access, the country realizes that there is a need for specialized administrators who are experienced in the areas of child development, emotional support, and vocational readiness programs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTGHLdr-iak
  • Public Law 85-926 passes

    PL 85-926 is passed as a result of the Association for Retarded Childen (ARC) lobbying efforts for legal and financial support for better programs for children with intellectual disabilities (then known as mental retardation). This law set the stage for federal funding for special education programs. During this time, parent advocacy groups are on the rise, and special education administrators are required to become skilled in dealing with politics and advocacy.
  • Special Education Administration Preparation Classes

    Special Education Administration Preparation Classes
    Due to the Education for All Handicapped Children's Act and federal grant monies, 4 universities increasingly add special education administration preparation programs.
  • Creation of the University Council for Educational Administrators (UCEA)

    The University Council for Educational Administrators (UCEA) is created as a result of a federal grant. The national council focuses on improvements to administrator preparation classes
  • Need for specialized administrators articulated

    Need for specialized administrators articulated
    The need for specialized administrators with knowledge of legislation and the ability to work with the strong advocacy groups growing in number across the country, is articulated.
    in the field of special education
  • An increase in special education administration university programs

    An increase in special education administration university programs
    By 1970, 20 universities across the country were offering programs to address special education administration
  • PA Association for Retarded Children v. The Commonwealth of PA

    Major win for parents, who won the guarantee that students with intellectual disabilities could benefit from needs-based instruction.
  • Larry P v. Riles Case

    Court ruled that any assessments administered to students did not discriminate based on race.
  • Mills v. Board of Education

    Mills v. Board of Education
    Class action lawsuit filed on behalf of children with disabilities in Washington DC. The district was ordered to educate ALL students, even students with disabilities. Additionally, it determined that special procedures had to be used for the determination of special services and for dispute resolution.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilition Act is created

    "Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act was the first disability civil rights law to be enacted in the United States. It prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in programs that receive federal financial assistance, and set the stage for enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act. " (https://dredf.org/.../section-504-of-the-rehabilitation-act-of-1973)
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act Public Law 94-142 enacted

    This law mandates that public schools provide services for all students and established the importance of the least restrictive environment. This caused a shift in thinking in terms of placement for students with disabilities.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Act

    EHA amended and reauthorized; name changed to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and PL 101-476 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66g6TbJbs2g
  • IDEA is amended and reauthorized;

    name changed to Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) and PL 108-446; it added a focus on transition
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    This act increases accountability for all students, which causes some to question if that includes students with significant special needs. It also called for inclusion, creating some confusing around total inclusion. If these students were totally included, would there be a need for separate "special" education administrators?
  • Reauthorization of IDEA

    EHA amended and reauthorized, which raises standards for the instruction of students with special needs
  • IDEA 2004

    Reauthorization of IDEA aligns special education with general education in that it emphasized the need for students with disabilities to have the same access to highly qualified teachers teaching core subjects so that these students would do well on state assessments. Additionally, it emphasized improving student outcomes for students with special needs.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act (EESA)

    Every Student Succeeds Act (EESA)
    Signed by President Obama, EESA requires that all students, regardless of disability, race, etc., be taught to high academic standards. It reduces the control of the federal government, and giving more control to states and LEAs.