History of Literacy Daniel Atehortua

  • Comenius 17th century (1600s)

    Comenius 17th century (1600s)
    He proposed starting with the whole rather than the parts, his goal was to educate univesally, and not just the elite.
  • Teachers (1800s)

    Teachers (1800s)
    Teachers who taught reading had often received little or not pedagogical preparation. Frequently these teachers had limited schooling themselves.
    Aproaches to teaching reading in the United States were "largely didactic, consisting of oral reading of texts with morals and lessons.
  • Parker (1875- 1880)

    Parker (1875- 1880)
    Under his leadership, lessons were connected to students' lives and interests. the Quincy School literacy lesson was based on real objects. Reading lessons dealt with topics that students studied in the different content areas.
  • Block (1880)

    Block (1880)
    He introcuced a daring new reading methos that used whole words to illustrate the sounds and the letters students were to learn.
  • Rice (1880s)

    Rice (1880s)
    Rice believed that literacy should be embedded in the study of academy and that student should "read to learn something from books" and write "in order to record the thoughts of others and make clear their own thoughts.
  • Rébsamen (1899)

    Rébsamen (1899)
    Rébsamen introduce the method Palabras Normales to Mexico... It is an analytic- Synthetic method because it follows the order of first (teaching) the word, going next to dividing it into syllables, amd lastly into letters sounds, and (then) building back nto syllables and returning to the word
  • Commite on the Economy of Time in Education (1915)

    Commite on the Economy of Time in Education (1915)
    Between 1915 and 1919, the Commite on the Economy of Time in Education was charged to "eliminate nonessentials from the elementary school curriculum, to improve teaching methods, and to set minimum standards for each school subjet.
  • Decroly (1936)

    Decroly (1936)
    Decroly developed the ideovisual method. This method tried to help children comprehend what they read and relate to the texts.
  • Hendrix (1947)

    Hendrix (1947)
    Hendrix wrote a book (Como enseñar a leer por el método global, it's the name of the book) describing the global method, which was an expansion of Decroly's ideovisual method. The book shows educator how to teach reading beginning with the sentence or the phrase and moving to the word, then the syllable, and finally, the letter.
  • (1950s)

    Reading during this period was dominated by the whole-word method and most teachers used basal readers in which vocabulary was carefully controlled and the many exercises were designed to build decoding skills.
  • Period: to

    1950s and 1970s

    Turbill (2002) described this period between 1950 and 1970 as "the age of reading as decoding." In her native Aystralia as well as in the United states, she explains that "our focus in teaching reading... was on the teaching skills including directinability, visual and aural discrimination, sound -symbols relationships (phonics), and word recognition.
  • Federal Goverment (1960s)

    Federal Goverment (1960s)
    Head Start was initiated to give all children an equal chance at education, and the elementary and the Seconcary Education Act provided funds to bring reading teachers to school with children who needed extra support.
  • Braslavsky (1962)

    Braslavsky (1962)
    He published a widely read book about the teaching of reading in Argentina "La Querella de los metodos en la enselanza de la lectura" this book, like Chall's, is also basically about the identification of words. Braslavsky compares the synthetic methods with the global method, which she calls analytic.
  • The spanish (1960s)

    The spanish (1960s)
    They wanted to educated people in religion.
    reading was approached synthetically.
  • Carlos III (1970s)

    Carlos III (1970s)
    The method of teaching spanish was realized with a small booklet composed of 38 lessons or exercises(silabary of San Miguel)
  • 1970s

    reading instruction influenced by B. F. Skinner's behaviorist principles "gave birth to prepackaged programs ogf individualized instructions," during which children move independently through a series of more and more difficult texts, working on specific skills.
  • 1960s and 1980s

    1960s and 1980s
    influenced by researches such as Goodman (1967) Smith (1971), Holdaway (1979) in psycolinguistics and reading, Graves (1983) in writing, and Halliday (1975) in functional linguistics, literacy educator in the United States, Canada, The United kingdom and Australia began to reject the fragmented, behaviorist aproach to reaidng instructions that prevailed in most schools and adopt a more holistic and meaning- centered view of reading and writing
  • Belleneger (1979)

    Belleneger (1979)
    Children were taught to read by first identying letters, then syllables, then isolated words, then phrases and finally whole text.
  • Publications about literacy (1980s)

    Publications about literacy (1980s)
    Publications about literacy in Spanish began to reflect an understanding of the sociopsycholinguistic view.
    The demand to the book was so great that it generated a newer translation in to Spanish only six years later (1995)
  • Teachers (1990s)

    Teachers (1990s)
    Teachers taught students to read for personal pleasure, for academic enrichment, and to develop a greater awareness of the role in the social structure.