Space Race, Sputnik
1950• Phonics Debate
• Look-say approach to learning sight vocabulary
• Skills lessons in the teacher’s manual were not elaborate
• Basal reading materials were published
• Flesch’s Why Johnny Can’t Read (1955); Identified the cause of the reading problem, which was the look-say method
• Chomsky (1957); Syntax Structure – revolutionized the field of linguistics
• Humans are “wired” to acquire the language of the community into which they are born.
The 1960'sCuban Missle Crisis
Assassination of JFk and Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil Rights Movements
- 90% of students were taught reading through one approach
- Chall, The Great Debate (1967) – Emphasize more phonics early on
- Teacher’s manuals accompanied by workbooks and became more elaborate.
- Title 1
- Right to Read Program
- Chomsky; 2 Facts about Language
- Language is incredibly complex
- Language is acquired quite easily and naturally by children.
- Context and picture cues
- Focused on early reading
The 1970'sVietnam War
- The basals contained more stories, characters, and harder vocabulary.
- Increase in tests on phonics skills
- Skill Management System
- Smith (1971) – Understand Reading.
- 4 Sources of Information, Orthographic, Syntactic, Semantic and Visual
- Schema Theory
- More focus on comprehension
- Criterion-referenced tests
- Lots of work by psychologists on processes of reading
- Linguistic and psycholinguisitic perspectives
The 1980'sThe Challenger
The 1980's• Comprehension moves to center stage in reading pedagogy
• L. Rosenblatt states meaning is created in exchange between the reader and text.
• Schema model increases in popularity
• Context of reading expanded to include instructional, non-instructional, home, and community
• Writing became a stronghold in elementary language arts instruction
• Anderson – A Nation of Readers
• Atwell – pioneer of responsive teaching
• Whole Language - info added in basals
- Integrated Instruction
- Literature Circles
- Whole Language believed in activity based learning, child-centered, the use of various texts and mini-lessons
- Change of basals to deep questioning and extension activities
- Demise of Whole Language, lack of skill instruction, lack of strategy instruction, text structure, content area reading
- Report of the Committee on Reading Disabilities
- Computer usage
- Federally funded studies
- Huge influx of immigrant children
- Extension activities
Iraq and Afganistan War
IPad, Ipods, Iphones
- Scientifically based reading research
- Quantitative / experimental research over qualitative research
- CCSS (Common Core State Standards)
- Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
- Reading First
- Change of the role of reading specialist
- Report from the National Reading Panel
- Striving readers
- Increase use of neuroscience in education
- Professional Development Shift: teachers
Reference PagePearson, P. D. (2010). American reading instruction since 1967. In Bean, R. M., Heisey, N., & roller, C. M. (Eds.), Preparing Reading Professionals (pp. 7–38). Newark, DE: International Reading Association Tracey, D. H., & Morrow, L. M. (2006). Lenses on reading: An introduction to theories and models. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.