Glass harmonica

History of Music since 1750

  • Domenico Scarlatti born

    Domenico Scarlatti born
    Compositions: Piano Sonata in C Major K. 159, L. 104. Scarlatti wrote many binary sonatas. B section will have a little quotation of the A section. This will develop into the ternary form and sonata-allegro form.
  • Giovanni Battista Pergolesi born

    Giovanni Battista Pergolesi born
  • C. P. E. Bach born

    C. P. E. Bach born
    Compositions: Sonata 3, E Major, H. 26. C.P.E. Bach didn’t care for his father’s style. C.P.E. Bach gave an example of Empfindsamkeit – violent articulation, agitated aesthetic.
  • Johann Stamitz born

    Johann Stamitz born
  • Johann Stamitz born

    Johann Stamitz born
    At Mannheim after 1741, wrote over 50 symphonies. • Static music and the only thing going on is a crescendo = called the Mannheim crescendo. Why does this matter? –virtuosity was demonstrated in dynamics at this time. See above.
    • Mannheim rocket – affect, rapid melodic figure
  • Period: to

    Rococco/Galant Era

    Called the "Enlightenment" - the natural consequence of the ideas that were fermenting in the Renaissance. Sturm und Drang, empfindsamer stil. Articulation of breat from the Church, non-god/anti-god movement. Guiding lights of the Enlightenmen were reason, nature and progress. A time when philosophy began to stress individuality. Freedom of speech and thought. America's Declaration of Independence (1776) & French Revolution (1790s)reflects Enlightenment doctrine.
  • Franz Joseph Haydn born

    Franz Joseph Haydn born
    worked for Esterhazy family most of his career, where he composed, conducted, trained, supervised, and was instrument technician. Style- galant, empfindsamer, baroque counterpoint, later sturm und drang. Accomplishments-"Father of the Symphony", est. 4-mvt symphony
  • Period: to

    Classical Era

  • Baroque Era Ends

    Baroque Era Ends
  • Mozart born

    Mozart born
    Mozart toured throughout Europe (1762-1773), he was educated all over Europe. He met composers all over Europe, like J.C. Bach, and absorbed the composer styles into his own style. Marriage of Figaro (1786). Later in life he composed piano music - Sturm und Drang.
  • Johann Stamitz dies

    Johann Stamitz dies
  • Ludwig van Beethoven born

    Ludwig van Beethoven born
    Accomplishments- transition between classical and romantic era. Three style periods: to 1802, 1803-1816, 1816-1827. Haydn's student. Eroica Symphony debuted his extended form innovations, dramatization of themes, intense dynamics, expanded range, harmonic innovations, a look into the soul.
  • Carl Maria von Weber born

    Carl Maria von Weber born
    German composer, conductor, pianist, critic and guitarrist. Opera- Der Freischutz
  • C. P. E. Bach dies

    C. P. E. Bach dies
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

  • Mozart dies

    Mozart dies
  • Gioacchino Rossini born

    Gioacchino Rossini born
    39 operas, sacred music, chamber music, instrumental and piano works. Composition: The Barber of Seville
  • Franz Schubert born

    Franz Schubert born
    Lieder - romantic, German art song, which is a two-edged sword: rugged individualism, solitary and lonely individualism, music as intellect vs. heart. increasing pianism, the accompaniment is part of the act. word painting and form painting. Winterreise (lied cycle) - deep emotional content, symbolic rhythms&forms
  • Hector Berlioz born

    Hector Berlioz born
    didn't care about harmonic lang., melody and accomp., or tech. He wrote pure emotion, expanded the orchestral palette, frees up the possibilities of timbre usage. One of the first conductors, along with Mendelsohn. Directly influences Liszt & Wagner. Later influences Ravel&Debussy.Sinfoniia Fantastique 1830.
  • Felix Mendelssohn born

    Felix Mendelssohn born
    one of the first conductors. contemporaries are Wagner and Liszt. wrote Songs Without Words. Brought Bach back.
  • Franz Joseph Haydn dies

    Franz Joseph Haydn dies
  • Frederic Chopin born

    Frederic Chopin born
    "The poet of the piano". Contributions: national dance types stylized into solo piano, increased chromaticism, etudes combine technical and artistic content (concert piece)
  • Robert Alexander Schumann born

    Robert Alexander Schumann born
    was a music critic for Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. favored Mendelssohn and Chopin over Liszt and Berlioz (his contemp.s). Carnival, Op. 9-character piece & Papillions. Married his teacher's daughter. Dichterliebe-song cycle of lieds based off poems with same topic.
  • Richard Wagner born

    Richard Wagner born
    Had melodies that did not end, propelled by ambiguity of harmonic structure. He developed the leitmotif. Opera - Tristan und Isold. Tristan chord - functions as dissonance instead of harmony, will lead to the wide idea of chromaticism.
  • Giuseppe Verdi born

    Giuseppe Verdi born
    Italian composer, one of the most famous opera writers of the 19th century. La Traviata - it's a struggle when everyone in the 19th century is conflicted with TB...
  • Der Freischütz premiered

    Der Freischütz premiered
    The first, truely Romantic, German opera - not a real-life drama, it is super-natural, fairy tale or from medieval history, there is an emphasis on wildness, as for music - German folk and folk-like melodies are used
  • Johann Strauss II born

    Johann Strauss II born
    Influenced by Wagner. Composed in the Post-Wagnarian era. Compositions: Tales From the Vienna Woods
  • Carl Maria von Weber dies

    Carl Maria von Weber dies
  • Beethoven dies

    Beethoven dies
  • Winterreise (lied cycle)

    Winterreise (lied cycle)
    Winterreise is published
  • Johannes Brahms

    Johannes Brahms
    Classically driven: wrote chamber music. Considered musically conservative. Hungarian Dances.
  • Maria Malibran born

    Maria Malibran born
    famous, super-star bel-canto singer. Other bel-canto figures: Amelita Galli-Curci, Luisa Tetrazzini, Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini
  • Maria Malibran dies

    Maria Malibran dies
  • Treatise on Orchestration published

    Treatise on Orchestration published
    Written by Hector Berlioz. Berlioz had an interest in new instruments, like saxophone family, layering instruments, combination of brass, loved using instruments in unorthodox settins.
  • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov born

    Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov born
    Part of The Five, which included: Rimsky-Korsakov, Musorgsky, Balakirev, Borodin, Cui.
  • Felix Mendelssohn dies

    Felix Mendelssohn dies
  • Chopin dies

    Chopin dies
  • Period: to

    Romantic Era

    Love, lust, cut-through-the-heart emotions, new timbre combinations and real-life opera, and TB...
  • La Traviata debut

    More declamitory, more speechlike and more authentic in terms of drama. Pretty Woman and Moulin Rouge are updated versions of La Traviata.
  • Schumann dies

    Schumann dies
  • Gustav Mahler born

    Gustav Mahler born
    Late-Romantic, Austrain. Took the lieder and combined with tone poem. Is part of the 19th century orchestral music movement. Composed in the Post-Wagnarian era.
  • Claude Debussy born

    Claude Debussy born
    One of the most influential composers of all time. Disowned the idea of classical structure...cause ain't nobody got time fo that. A symbolist composer who wrote piano and orchestral music. Saw Gamalan music at the Worlds Fair in 1889. Used oriental sounds to connect Eastern Asian culture to Western culture.
  • Richard Strauss born

    Richard Strauss born
    Influenced by Wagner. Composed in the Post-Wagnarian era. Opera: Der Rosenkavalier, bel canto His harmonic language is non-resolving, chromatic, swirling. Orchestration is bright with high winds and strings.
  • Tristan und Isold premiered

    Tristan und Isold premiered
    provided direct influence to Mahler and Strauss
  • Gioacchino Rossini dies

    Gioacchino Rossini dies
  • Hector Berlioz dies

    Hector Berlioz dies
  • Richard Wagner dies

    Richard Wagner dies
  • Anton Webern born

    Anton Webern born
    Austraian composer, student of Schoenberg, who created 12-tone technique. This will later develope into total-serealism. Used 12-tone in much of his works
  • World's Fair Exhibition

    World's Fair Exhibition
    Paris, France.
  • Johannes Brahms dies

    Johannes Brahms dies
  • Johann Strauss II dies

    Johann Strauss II dies
  • Period: to

    Modern Era

    Use of electronic tonalities, all about faith in progress. Audiences have become too lazy and comfortable. Romantic music was too lazy and comfortable. Bring on the dissonance. Composers: Hindemith, Bartok, Ives, Webern, Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Webern, Messiaen & Boulez (Serialism-arranging all elements of music in series, not just pitches).
  • Giuseppe Verdi dies

  • Gustav Mahler dies

    Gustav Mahler dies
  • John Cage born

    John Cage born
    American Post-Modern composer, theorist, painter. Compositions: 4'33"
  • Theremin invented

    Theremin invented
  • Steve Reich born

    Steve Reich born
    Post-Modern composer, minimalism music. Contemporaries include Phillip Glass
  • Richard Strauss dies

    Richard Strauss dies
  • 4'33" premiered

    4'33" premiered
  • Period: to

    Post-Modern era

    Reactions against Modernism. Modernism is about faith in progress, using electronic tonalities. Post-Modernism includes minimalism and some kind of rapid-pulse, pepetitive, stead-state, meditative texture...
  • John Cage dies

    John Cage dies