History Of Ideas Timeline

  • Period: 3100 BCE to 30 BCE

    The Egyptian Empire

    The first empire to grow into magnificence in the river valleys of Asia & Africa, the Egyptian Empire founded many aspects of culture we still use today, most of all agriculture; transitioning from hunter/gatherers to domestication. Egyptians also had an exemplary understanding of architecture and physics. Because of their trail-blazing knowledge, the Egyptian Empire's longevity lasted three millennia, and some of their structures still stand.
  • Period: 1750 BCE to 1111 BCE

    Shang Dynasty Rule China

    The Shang Dynasty was the first to rule China in which historical evidence survived.
  • Period: 1111 BCE to 255 BCE

    Chou Dynasty Rule China

    The defeat of the Shang Dynasty saw the rise of the Chou Dynasty, which endured until 255 BC. Four years later China would find true unification under the reign of the Ch'in Dynasty
  • 625 BCE

    Thales Born in Miletus

     Thales Born in Miletus
    "Thales was best known for being the first thinker to propose a single universal principle of the material universe; water" (Doren)
  • 580 BCE

    Pythagoras Born in Samos

    Pythagoras Born in Samos
    Pythagoras is the originator of the "Pythagorean Theorem". He also is responsible for the mathematical counts in music. "He and his disciples arrived at the conclusion that things are numbers and numbers are things." (Doren) His disciples eventually abandoned the Theorem because of a​ "unsolvability", irrational numbers.
  • 551 BCE

    Confucius Born in Lu

    Confucius Born in Lu
    The most infamous Chinese philosopher in history, Confucius was born in the China state of Lu to a poor, impoverished family. For the most part self-educated. But he would go on to form profound ideology on all eminence which Shih Huang-ti adopted during his reign in the Ch'in Dynasty. Confucius stated that superiority should be based entirely on merit, ability, and moral excellence. rather than birth-right. This ideology, known as Confucianism, would become the state orthodoxy. He died in 479BC
  • 525 BCE

    Aeschylus Born in Greece

    Aeschylus Born in Greece
    A playwright, Aeschylus​ is accredited as being the inventor of tragedy. Legend has it that Dionysus (the god of the grape harvest, winemaking, wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy) visited him one night in a dream and from that moment on Aeschylus would go on to write magnificent tragedies. The estimation of plays written by Aeschylus range from 70 to 90, only 7 survive. He died within the timespan of 456-455
  • 496 BCE

    Sophocles Born

    Sophocles Born
    Sophocles was a​ playwrite that contributed to the tragedy genre. Playwrite of a classic masterpiece, Oedipus Rex.
  • Period: 486 BCE to 465 BCE

    Xerxes Ruled Persian Empire

    A successor to Darius The Great, Xerxes saw great expansion of the Persian Empire under his rule
  • 484 BCE

    Euripedes Born

    Euripedes Born
    The last of the great Athenian tragedians, Euripedes flipped the tradition of plays by starring humans rather than gods in his writings. He would place women and slaves as the role of protagonists where gods had traditionally sat. His plays emphasized the tragic and comic aspects of life ​and showed truths that were difficult for Athenians to swallow.
  • 480 BCE

    Herodotus Born

    Herodotus Born
    Considered the "inventor" of history, Herodotus was the first to write a coherent story of the past. He was the last of the great Athenian tragedians.
  • 470 BCE

    Socrates Born in Athens

    Socrates Born in Athens
    Socrates served as an infantryman in the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. A teacher, sophist, and philosopher, Socrates was known for asking the hard questions, and almost exclusively for asking the hard questions. in 399 BC, he was charged with impiety and corrupting the young, who would listen to his intriguing conversations. He was executed on his charges. Socrates never wrote anything of his own.
  • 460 BCE

    Democritus Born in Abdera

    Democritus Born in Abdera
    Combating Thales view, Democritus believed that all matter is made up of a finite number of particles invisible to the naked eye; atoms. He believed that "the soul is breath, and because breath is material, and therefore made up of atoms, so must be the soul". (Doren) He wrote 70 books in his time, none of which survived.
  • 460 BCE

    Thucydides Born

    Thucydides Born
    Following in the footsteps of Herodotus, Thucydides is another "originator of history" and being a soldier he documented wars in his time. His most famous writings are the funeral oration by the Athenian leader Pericles. Thucydides implied that the real tragedy of Athens was that winning battles she was losing her soul.
  • 450 BCE

    The Twelve Tables Codified

    The Twelve Tables Codified
    The Twelves Tables were erected by the Roman Empire in 450 BC. Each tablet contained a portion of the law of Rome and became public property for the accessibility of the citizens.
  • Period: 431 BCE to 404 BCE

    Truce Between Athens & Sparta

    Conclusively, Athens fell to Sparta.
  • 427 BCE

    Plato Born in Athens

    Plato Born in Athens
    Plato is one of the great ancient thinkers and philosophers. He was most fascinated in the underlying matter of the physical world, which he called "The Forms"; absolute qualities something must have in orer to be that thing. "It is catness, said Plato, a Form; catness is not material, even though all cats are material beings. What is shared by all things that are good, by virtue of which we call them "good"? It is goodness, another, and higher, Form;" (Doren) Plato died in 348≈347 BC.
  • 387 BCE

    Plato Founded The Academy In Athens

    Plato Founded The Academy In Athens
    "School of Athens" by Raphael depicts Plato's Academy with Plato and his pupil, Aristotle, at the center of this piece.
  • 384 BCE

    Aristotle Born in Stagira, Mcedonia

    Aristotle Born in Stagira, Mcedonia
    Aristotle, like​ Plato, is one of the great ancient thinkers and philosophers​. Aristotle was a student of Plato at the Academy in Athens for 12 years. Playing off Plato's philosophies, Aristotle combatted the view introducing Matter and Form. He stated that one cannot exist without the other. After the death of Plato, Aristotle traveled for 12 years, starting academies in various cities. Upon his return, he would tutor Alexander. Aristotle died in 322 BC.
  • 341 BCE

    Epicurus Born in Samos

    Epicurus Born in Samos
    A Greek philosopher, Epicurus lived the first half of his life in Samos, the latter in Athens. He studied under Democritus, inevitably becoming an atomist. He founded a school in Lampsacus of philosophy now known as Epicureanism. This train of thought taught that happiness is the supreme good. Only fragments of Epicurus' writing still survive. He had a substantial influence on Lucretius and the molding of his philosophies. Epicurus died in 270 BC.
  • 336 BCE

    Alexander The Great Inherited Throne of Macedonia

    Alexander The Great Inherited Throne of Macedonia
    Alexander The Great was one of the greatest rulers to live. In his lifetime, he conquered Miletus, Samos, Persia, Egypt, & the island city of Tyre in 332 BC. He expanded his kingdom to the borders of India. By the time Alexander died in 323 BC, he had been corrupted by the Persian practice of god-like worship, proskynesis, which did not extend beyond a few months.
  • 335 BCE

    Aristotle Opened the Lyceum in Athens

    Aristotle Opened the Lyceum in Athens
    During Aristotle's twelve years of traveling, he opened the academy Lyceum which was devoted to science rather than metaphysics as the Academy in Athens.
  • 335 BCE

    Zeno The Stoic Born in Cyprus

    Zeno The Stoic Born in Cyprus
    Zeno the Stoic is namely the father of Stoicism. He adopted the idea of three parts of thought from the Academy (logic, ethics, physics) and formed a new philosophy. His philosophy of stoicism held the belief of pantheism. His original thoughts are difficult to analyze as his train of thought was expanded upon by generations of Stoics. What is known is that he held value is the absence of passion. For one to defuse emotional and physical desires was to gain wisdom.
  • 312 BCE

    The First Major Roman Roads

    The First Major Roman Roads
    Appius Claudius the Blind began the first major road in Roman culture named Via Appia.
  • 300 BCE

    Elements of Geometry

    Elements of Geometry
    Euclid compiled his textbook "Elements of Geometry" which was used in most Western school until recently.
  • Period: 264 BCE to 146 BCE

    The Punic Wars

    The Punic wars consisted of three battles between Carthage and Rome. The first was fought on the island of Sicily and the northern portion of Africa. In 241, Carthage surrendered, signing a treaty with Rome an fled Sicily. The second war, in which Hannibal lead Carthage, lasted from 218-201. This war held many victories for Carthage, but Rome came out on top once more. The third and final of the Punic wars (149-146) saw the complete annihilation​ of Carthage at the hands of the Roman empire.
  • Period: 221 BCE to 206 BCE

    Ch'in Dynasty Rule China

    The most successful of the early dynasties, the Ch'in, under the rule of Shih Huang-ti ("First sovereign emperor") saw the completion of the Great Wall of China, an installation of road networks, and the abolishment of feudalism (replaced with Confucian principles) The dynasty would collapse at the death of Shih Huang-ti.
  • 220 BCE

    Great Wall of China Completed

    Great Wall of China Completed
  • 106 BCE

    Cicero Born in Arpinum

    Cicero Born in Arpinum
    Cicero was the son of a wealthy family who learned under the tutelage of Greek teachers both in Greece and Rome. Being in the legal career, Cicero was elected one of two consuls in Rome. He helf many more positions in his legal career. Cicero would find himself in a struggle between Pompey and Caesar. He sought support from both men but ultimately made the wrong decision that would get him murdered in 43 BC. This decision, Doren writes, led to the fall of the republic.
  • 95 BCE

    Lucretius Born

    Lucretius Born
    Although birthplace is unknown, Lucretius grew up in Rome where he lived as a poet and philosopher. Little is known about his life and death (52-51 BC), except that he was a great thinker. His infamous work "On The Nature Of Things" shows philosophies on the big questions of everything; mind and soul, atomism, and the world. The ultimate goal was to present Epicurean philosophy to Roman society. The most popular of the philosophies is that "everything in moderation" produces happiness.
  • 4 BCE

    Seneca Born in Spain

    Seneca Born in Spain
    After the murder of Claudius, Seneca had great influence on the new emperor, Nero. Because Nero was young when he came into power, Seneca vicariously held the power of Rome. During his time, he would write philosophies expanding upon Zeno the Stoic. Additionally, he was a renown tragedian and his plays would go on to influence playwrights heavily in the Renaissance.
  • 56

    Tacitus Born in Gaul

    Tacitus Born in Gaul
    In his youth, Publius Cornelius Tacitus studied rhetoric and law, and in 97 he earned consulship. During his career, he married the daughter of a future governor of Britain, Gnaeus Julius Agricola. In 98, Tactics began his literary career when he wrote two books. The first an objective biography on his father-in-law; second, a descriptive essay on the Roman frontier country on the Rhine. He would go on to write on the history of his time. Tacitus died around​ 120.
  • 280

    Constantine The Great Born in [modern day] Yugoslavia

    Constantine The Great Born in [modern day] Yugoslavia
    During the infamous battle at the Milvian Bridge near Rome, it is said that Constantine dreamt he was visited by an angel, which held a cross and spoke the words "In hoc signo vinces" ("In this sign thou shalt conquer") that morning, Constantine ordered that Christian symbols be painted on the standards and shields. A controversial leader, Constantine The Great rose to the title of Ceasar shortly after the passing of his father. Once in power, he made Christianity the official religion of Rome.
  • 354

    Augustine Born in Tagaste

    Augustine Born in Tagaste
    Initially repulsed by Christianity, Augustine soon found himself a bishop of Hippo by the year 386. From then on he would spend his life in religious controversies. Augustine's claim to fame, "The City of God" is a book written by the bishop. This book was highly influenced by the philosophies of Plato and was a response to the Roman thought on Christianity. The book is a metaphor for the intrinsic aspects of the life of a Christian and the actual city of God illusion to the spirit.
  • 480

    Boethius Born in Rome

    Boethius Born in Rome
    Boethius, being fluent in Greek and Latin, translated some of Aristotle's works to continue his legacy. The year 520 found Boethius imprisoned, tortured, and eventually executed in 524. In his time of imprisonment, he wrote "The Consolation of Philosophy, which has been deemed the single most important work leading into the next era.
  • 529

    Emperor Justinian Promulgated the Codex Constitutionum

    Emperor Justinian Promulgated the Codex Constitutionum
  • 800

    Charlemagne Crowned Pope

    Charlemagne Crowned Pope
    Charlemagne's other titles include King of the Lombards (r. 774-814) and King of the Franks (r. 768-814)
  • 980

    Avicenna Born in Bukhara

    Avicenna Born in Bukhara
    An intellectual prodigy, Avicenna surpassed his teachers at a very young age, memorized the Koran at 10, and became a famous physician by 21. His most infamous works, "The Book of Healing" and "The Canon of Medicine" highly influenced Western thought on medicine.
  • 1000

    Gunpowder Invented in China

    Gunpowder Invented in China
    Originally used for fireworks, Arab mercenaries would obtain gunpowder from the Chinese and fashion the first guns. This forever changed the face of war and combat.
  • 1079

    Peter Abelard Born in Britanny

    Peter Abelard Born in Britanny
    Peter studied philosophy and logic, in which he excelled in both. In his years, he became a teacher in Paris. At the time, Paris was a hub of theological controversy, and Peter would involve himself in all that he could. He went on to write "Sic et Non" (Yes or No) which is a collection of controversies and possible answers to each. He also wrote "Scito te Ipsum" (Know Thyself) that teaches actions themselves do not produce sin, rather the intentions behind them. Peter was executed in 1142.
  • 1224

    Thomas Aquinas Born in Aquino

    Thomas Aquinas Born in Aquino
    Thomas is one of the most infamous priests in history. He resided in Paris and spent more than 7 years studying theology, philosophy, and history under the teachings of Albertus Magnus. Two doctrines in Thomas' time were of universals, realists, and nominalists. Thomas fended the side of universals. "In man", according to Thomas, "there is not only a distinction between spirit and nature, there is also a strange unity". He would go on to become Doctor or the Church and a saint.
  • 1265

    Dante Alighieri Born in Florence

    Dante Alighieri Born in Florence
    Dante's claim to fame comes from his poem, the infamous "The Divine Comedy", published in 1300. Divided into three parts, it is the story in which Dante travels the metaphysical plains of Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell. This poem was dedicated to his wife, in which her character is the one leading Dante through his travels and eventually to God.
  • Period: 1346 to 1353

    The Black Death

    The Black Death, or Black Plague, was and is the single most deadly epidemic in human history. Thought to have begun in Crimea, the disease would travel by trading ships through the transportation of rats. It soon spread to northern Italy and North Africa in 1348, France and Spain later the same year; Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low Countries, and England were affected in 1349. Fatalities totaled somewhere between 25-40 million people, which equated to 1/4-1/2 of the population.
  • 1450

    Gutenberg's Achievement

    Gutenberg's Achievement
    Although very little is known about Johann Gutenberg, his invention would change the pace of the world forever. He is responsible for inventing the first metal printing press which would expedite the publishing process incredibly. The first book to be printed with this method was around 1450, and society would continue to use this method for years to come.
  • 1452

    Leonardo da Vinci Born in Vinci

    Leonardo da Vinci Born in Vinci
    Leonardo da Vinci lived in the Renaissance era, and is one of the most infamous painters of that time. His works include The Last Supper, Mona, Lisa, and The Virgin And The Child With St. Anne. Painting was a way for da Vinci to portray the knowledge in which he had. "The secret," Leonardo said, "to know is to see" ("saper vedere")
  • 1463

    Pico della Mirandola Born in Ferrara

    Pico della Mirandola Born in Ferrara
    Pico solidified his mark in history in 1486, when he attempted to defend the 900 theses of religion from Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic origins. He later published on the subject, "On The Dignity Of Man" in which he writes, "Man is the measure of all things." This thought was an unprecedented blend of Deism and Theism. Pico died in 1494 at the age of 31.
  • 1466

    Erasmus Born in Rotterdam

    Erasmus Born in Rotterdam
    Desiderius Erasmus was a scholar and diplomat. In his time he also became a priest and eventually a monk. He is responsible for the first transliteration of the New Testament from Greek to Latin. In 1516, he published the translation along with an improved Greek version of the NT. He also went on to write original work, his most famous being In Praise of Folly, which addressed the situation of foolishness and misguided pompousness of his time. It gained him many enemies but later on loved.
  • 1473

    Copernicus Born in Poland

    Copernicus Born in Poland
    Nicolas Copernicus was a Reformation-era mathematician and scientist. He combated the thought of the structure of the universe. He hypothesized that the Earth revolved around the sun, rather than the opposite. Only on his deathbed did he publish his book on the subject "On the Revolution of the Heavenly​ Orbs"
  • 1483

    Martin Luther Born in Germany

    Martin Luther Born in Germany
    The Father of Protestantism, Martin Luther, would change the theological world of Europe forever. In 1510 he became a professor of theology and on October 31, 1517, the Reformation began when Luther infamously nailed 95 theses on the door of All Saints' Church in Wittenburg. He began with the criticism of the sale of indulgence by the church but continued to write on the Catholic Church's view of most things that formed from cultural rather than Biblical standards, including the Pope himself.
  • 1547

    Cervantes Born in Alcala de Henares

    Cervantes Born in Alcala de Henares
    Cervantes began his adult life as a soldier but soon became a writer. His passions led him to write poetry, plays, stories, and pastoral romances. The most famous of all his works was Don Quixote. The story follows the adventures of a Spaniard named Mr. Alonso Quixano who attempts to revive chivalry and justice into the world under the pseudonym Don Quixote de la Mancha. This story would go to usher in a new step towards a modern style of literature as it had not been done before.
  • 1561

    Francis Bacon Born in London

    Francis Bacon Born in London
    Bacon was a politician who served under Queen Elizabeth, followed by King James I. In 1621, he was accused of taking bribes from lords and sentenced to the Tower of London. Upon his release, he never held a place in office again. He would go on to write his "Essays", most popular are "Advancement of Learning" and "Novum Organon". These Essays give readers good insight into thought in the Renaissance. In March 1626, Bacon died from a chill after an experiment performed in the middle of winter.
  • 1564

    Galileo Born in Pisa

    Galileo Born in Pisa
    In the scientific age of discovery, the difference of Galileo from other scientists was his Roman Catholic upbringing. He held his theology throughout his scientific career which began when he gazed at the moon through a telescope he had modified. The power of the telescope allowed him to analyze the surface of the moon. The surface was not smooth. This changed the thought of the moon as being made of quintessential matter. The heavens, therefore, he stated, were not indestructible.
  • 1571

    Kepler Born in Wurttemburg

    Kepler Born in Wurttemburg
    Kepler was a well-known astronomist that would go on to change the perspective on the universe from Aristotelian thought to an unprecedented one. His first law was that planetary formation was not perfectly circular. Secondly, that the radius vector joining a planet to the sun sweeps out equal area in equal times. Thirdly, a mathematical relationship between the revolutions of planets in distance to the sun.
  • Descartes Born in France

    Descartes Born in France
    Descartes discoveries in the mathematical field changed formulas forever. He is titled as the first modern philosopher and is known for connecting geometry and algebra. He found the solution of geometric problems solved through algebraic equations, which we use today. He went on to write a book on the subject titled "The Discourse of Method". As a philosopher, he is famed for coining the term "I doubt; therefore I am".
  • John Locke Born in Somerset

    John Locke Born in Somerset
    Locke studied at Westminster School and Oxford University. Offended by the Scholastic philosophies taught, he founded the philosophy of the "Blank Slate". He would later serve as a physician, secretary, and counselor to Shaftesbury. During the revolution of 1688, Locke would write two treatises on civil government. The majority of his writings were on property and the government. He stated that God gave the earth to men equally and that the government must respect that.
  • Newton Born In Lincolnshire, England

    Newton Born In Lincolnshire, England
    Newton studied at Cambridge, finding the binomial theorem before graduation. Newton's genius can be attributed to a melting pot of Galileo, Kepler, and Descartes philosophies. He would go on to publish "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" which describes the universe in a completely different manner than Aristotle did many years ago. Newton can be crowned as one of the major head figures of the scientific revolution.
  • John Milton Writes "Paradise Lost"

    John Milton Writes "Paradise Lost"
    In the time of metaphysical poets like John Donne, George Herbert, Richard Cranshaw, and many others, Milton found his fame with his epic "Paradise Lost". The poem's subject is on the Fall of Man; Adam and Eve's temptation to sin and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton's stated that the purpose of this epic was to "justify the ways of God to men".
  • Thomas Jefferson Born in Virginia

    Thomas Jefferson Born in Virginia
    One of the Founding Fathers of United States, Jefferson is infamous in American history for the Declaration of Independence. In which, he adopted Locke's philosophies with minor modification. Lock wrote that people are entitled to "life, liberty, and property", where Jefferson writes "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness". John Locke's philosophies of self-governing influenced much of Jefferson's work.
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    The Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution is the most important paradigm shift in economic history. The invention of steam power and the ability of mass-manufacturing changed the economics of the world. Supply and demand sky-rocketed, allowing for growth in populations. While for the economy this was positive, the individual would suffer from disenfranchisement. At this time in history, classes were divided, the world was at war and individualism slowly consumed collectivism.
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    The American Revolution

    Well known in American history, the Revolutionary War was the fight for the independence of colonial America from Great Britain. In 1778, the French assisted the side of the colonies. Conclusively, American won, with the win came independence, and sparked a fire in the people of France that began the French Revolution.
  • The Declaration of Independance

    The Declaration of Independance
    The Declaration of Independence was created in 1776 and made official the independence of the colonies from Britain, thus birthing the United States of America.
  • The Declaration of The Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    The Declaration of The Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    Following the Bill of Rights in America, and more closely the French Revolution, this document changed French societies forever. The declaration states, "Nothing that is forbidden by Law may be hindered, and no one may be compelled to do what the Law does not ordain. Liberty consists in being able to do anything that does not harm others". But this document also states "The source of all sovereignty lies essentially in the Nation." thus limiting liberties of the French to the governing bodies.
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    The French Revolution

    Depicted in the classic Broadway production Les Miserables, the French Revolution was a social and political upheaval. The citizens of France revolted against the government after the release of the Declaration of The Man and of the Citizen. The American Revolution is what sparked the French Revolution. Americans had proven that you could fight and win your independence; France wanted the same. The French Revolution ultimately failed.
  • Darwin Born in England

    Darwin Born in England
    Charles Darwin may be the single most important man in the scientific world ever. The father of evolution shook the very foundations of human origins with his theory. His theory would be published to the public in 1859 titled "The Origin Of Species". From that time, his theory has been expanded upon in almost all scientific fields and have become the base for many aspects. At first, many accepted Darwin's theory of animalistic evolution, but not humans. Now Darwin's theories reach both.
  • Marx Born in Trier

    Marx Born in Trier
    Crowned as the father of sociology, Karl Marx is infamous for his views on class struggles. Following years of various revolutions, Karl Marx brought this idea of inequality to an individual level, between the worker and owner (bourgeoisie and proletariat) Marx came up during the industrial revolution and the age of disenfranchisement. He wrote the "Communist Manifesto" after the Revolution of 1848, which promoted communism while shaming capitalism. Marx's ideologies are far-fetched but live on.
  • The First Photograph

    The First Photograph
    The first successful​ photograph was taken by Nicephore Niepce,
  • Mendeleyev Born in Russia

    Mendeleyev Born in Russia
    Dmitry Mendeleyev was a Russian chemist who produced the Periodic Table of Elements, arranging them by atomic mass.
  • Maxim Born in Main

    Maxim Born in Main
    Hiram Stevens Maxim's invention would change the art of war forever. To begin, Maxim's lesser inventions included the hair-curling iron, mousetraps, headlights, a method for carbon filaments for lamps, and automatic sprinklers. His biggest invention by far was the first true machine gun. Before his time the gun was limited to single rounds. He brother went on to invent smokeless powders. In 1884, he began to manufacture machine guns and became a necessity in the first World War.
  • Edison Born in Ohio

    Edison Born in Ohio
    Crowned as the greatest inventor of America, Thomas Edison is the one to thank for the invention of the light bulb, phonograph, the motion picture camera, and much more.
  • Freud Born in Moravia

    Freud Born in Moravia
    Sigmund Freud, known by some as the father of psychology, studied medicine in Vienna, specializing in neurology and psychiatry. Freud is most known for his work on the Id, Ego, and Superego. For Freud, every person had underlying sexual desires deemed socially inappropriate, the Id. The Superego combated the Id with moral decisions. The Ego came into play as an equalizer, finding balance on the spectrum. Freud categorized age by the sexual desires or tendencies​, from infant to adult.
  • Einstein Born in Germany

    Einstein Born in Germany
    Einstein needs no introduction, he has made his permanent mark in history and is infamous throughout the world. He is responsible for the Special and General Theory of Relativity, along with the infamous equation of E=MC^2. In 1921, he won the Nobel Peace Prize for Physics. On his personal life, he was a pacifist. When Hitler took over Germany, Einstien renounced his German citizenship and fled to the US. He attempted to use his notoriety for peace, but with little success. He died in 1955.
  • Fleming Born in Scotland

    Fleming Born in Scotland
    In 1906, Alexander Fleming began his research on antibacterial substances that might be nontoxic to human tissue. By this time in medicine, bacteria was known to cause, but also cure, illnesses. During his research, Fleming found a circle of bacteria around a mold growth (Penicillium notatum) This would later be isolated to become penicillin. His research inspired many more scientists in the study of bacteria and antibiotics​.
  • Picasso Born in Malaga

    Picasso Born in Malaga
    One of the most famous painters in history, Pablo Picasso changed the way art was portrayed in an unprecedented fashion. Up to this point, realism and metaphysical depiction had been the only forms of paintings. Picasso invented his own style, which is now known as abstract. For Picasso, this was an unconventional way of capturing beauty. Many art critics scolded his work and found it repulsive. It was not until much later his work was appreciated as masterpieces.
  • Braque Born in Paris

    Braque Born in Paris
    A friend of Picasso, Georges Braque would assist in reinventing the standards of beauty of art. His style, which is now called Cubism, brought a completely new style to the art world, which shocked many critics."The aim", Braque said, "is not to reconstitute an anecdotal fact, but to constitute a pictorial fact".
  • The Box Camera

    The Box Camera
    The invention of the first box camera by George Eastman would change the way society viewed drawings and paintings. The first box camera used negative film, which was widely available. William H. F. Talbot invented the negative-positive system we use now in the 1840s.
  • Lemaitre Born in Belguim

    Lemaitre Born in Belguim
    A Catholic Priest and astronomer, Georges Lemaitre hypothesize the "primeval atom" as the source of the beginning of the universe, later known as the Big Bang. He presented the idea in 1927 to an audience in which Einstein was a part of. After the presentation, Einstein jumped to his feet, applauding, and said: ​"This is the most beautiful and satisfactory explanation of creation to which I ever listened".
  • Mcluhan Born in Canada

    Mcluhan Born in Canada
    During the century of technological advancements, Marshall McLuhan questioned aspects of newfound communication that came with these inventions. His famous quote "the medium is the message", which goes on to mean that McLuhan put emphasis on the WAY information was shared rather than the information itself. He expands upon this idea in his book "Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man" in 1964. McLuhan's skepticism to these new forms of communication provokes ​thought and critical analysis.
  • Turing Born in London

    Turing Born in London
    Alan Turing studied mathematical logic at King's College in Cambridge. In 1935, While attending he wrote a paper "On Computable Numbers". The paper, published in 1937 showed that a universal machine, now named after him, could be designed to perform functions and problem-solving. This was the birth of digital computers. During the Second World War, Turing managed to break the German enigma, thus raising his name to fame. Despite his work for London, he was arrested for homosexuality.
  • Pollock Born in Wyoming

    Pollock Born in Wyoming
    One of the trailblazers for abstract expressionism, Jackson Pollock brought his own style to the art world. This style is known as "drip painting", where Pollock would literally drip paint onto a canvas with no rhythm or reason. His paintings caught the attention of the media, and from there Pollock had it made. He lived as an artist until a car accident in 1956 took his life.
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    World War I

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    World War II