History of Counseling

Timeline created by gray524
In History
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    History of Counseling

  • Visiting Teacher Movement

    Visiting Teacher Movement
    Teachers began visiting with students and their parents in settelement houses or through community organizations in order to provide guidance and support for problem students.
  • First Vocational Counseling Program for Public Schools

    First Vocational Counseling Program for Public Schools
    Frank Parsons established the Vocational Bureau of the Civic Services, which eventually took root as a free service provided from within the High Schools of Boston.
  • Frank Parson establishes himself as the father of vocational guidance

    Frank Parson establishes himself as the father of vocational guidance
    Frank Parsons published the influential Choosing a Vocation (printed posthumously). This work introduced the highly influential trait and factor approach, which included the following: Develop a clear understanding of yourself and your abilities, then acquire knowledge of conditions requried for success, then develop true reasoning on how to connect those ideas together.
  • Child Guidance Clinics

    Child Guidance Clinics
    Psychiatry was introduced to the school system in the form of referrals for mental health evaluations and counseling. These referrals were usually made to clinics operating outside of the school system itself, and were reserved for the most problematic students (behavior problems and truancy).
  • New York Formally Certifies Guidance Counselors

    New York Formally Certifies Guidance Counselors
    New York was the first state to formally craft a system of official licensing for school guidance counselors.
  • New York Hires Full-time Guidance Counselors

    New York Hires Full-time Guidance Counselors
    New York is the first state to hire full-time counseling staff for the state department of education. The purpose was to provide oversight and training to counselors in local school districts.
  • School Social Worker Movement

    School Social Worker Movement
    Many school districts around the United States began using social workers for outreach in the local communities. These social workers operated as a conduit for connecting parents, students, and school officials. Social Workers represented a shift away from traditional law-and-order discipline to a new modality that incorporated understanding and counseling for problem students.
  • Guidance and Personnel Branch Established

    Guidance and Personnel Branch Established
    the federal government established the Guidance and Personnel Branch of the Division of Vocational Education in the U.S. Office of Education. This newly created government agency worked with vocational guidance in local school districts around the United States.
  • Publication of Counseling and Psychotherapy

    Publication of Counseling and Psychotherapy
    The publication of Carl Rodger's landmark work created a new emphasis on client-centered counseling. This new paradigm was integrated over time in the model of school counseling.
  • ASCA Founded

    ASCA Founded
    American School Counseling Association was founded. This organization gave voice and value to the discipline of school guidance counseling. In particular, ethics, standards, and training guidelines were established.
  • Pupil Personnel Services Organization created

    Pupil Personnel Services Organization created
    Created as a branch of the U.S. Office of Education, the Pupil Personnel Services Organization worked to stretch the mandate of school counseling to cover territory beyond that of just vocational advice.
  • National Defense Education Act

    National Defense Education Act
    The NDEA recognized the value of school counselors in relation to larger national goals and agendas. A key provision within the NDEA called for the hiring of large numbers of school counselors to work in high schools across the country. The idea was that school counselors could aid in steering gifted students to the science and math fields, thus making the United States more competitive with the USSR.
  • Publication of the American High School Today

    Publication of the American High School Today
    james B. Conant published the American High School Today. This seminal work argued for the strengthening of the secondary education model. Among his many recommendations, Conant emphasized the need for an improved full-time school counselor to student ration (one for every 250 to 300 students). This book was extemely infuential in the development of high schools for the next several decades.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    This federal legislation called for the training and hiring of additional school counselors across the nation. This bill was designed as part of President Johnson's "War on Poverty".
  • Vocational Education Act Amendments

    Vocational Education Act Amendments
    Provided for additional funds for training and hiring counselors for both primary and secondary schools.
  • Career Education Incentive Act

    Career Education Incentive Act
    Affirmed the need for vocational guidance to be at the forefront of school counseling efforts and expanded funding for school guidance counseling.
  • Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education ACt

    Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education ACt
    Federal law that expanded funding for school guidance counseling in regards to career guidance.
  • Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act

    Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act
    Federal law that expanded funding for school guidance counseling in regards to career guidance.
  • School to Work Opportunities Act

    School to Work Opportunities Act
    Congressional bill that further emphasized the need to work with graduating students in crafting post-graduation plans.
  • Elementary School Demonstration Counseling Act

    Elementary School Demonstration Counseling Act
    Expanded funding for additional school counselors and emphasized the the need for school counselors to be prepared to deal with a variety of personal of social needs, not just voational guidance.
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    Federal law that mandated standards for student achievement and demonstration of student growth. This bill created a new avenue for school counselors to demonstrate their value to the academic life of schools and the futures of students.