El pepe

History of Aviation

  • Period: 500 BCE to 200 BCE

    Invention of Kites in China.

    The history of aviation dates to the 5th century BCE with the invention of kites in China.
    Kites are said to have originated in China between 475 BCE and 221 BCE with the first kites made of wood and mimicking the shapes of birds
  • 1488

    Da Vinci's first drafts.

    Da Vinci's first drafts.
    The famous artist Leonardo da Vinci created the first drafts for a rational aircraft in his paintings in the 15th century.
  • A theory t of lighter-than-air aircraft.

    A theory t of lighter-than-air aircraft.
    In the year 1670 Francesco Lana de Terzi published a book titled Prodromo, including a chapter titled saggio di alcune invenzioni nuove premesso all'arte maestra ("Essay on new inventions premised on the master art"), which contained the description of a “flying ship”. Encouraged by the experiments of Otto von Guericke with the Magdeburg hemispheres, in 1663 Lana de Terzi developed an idea for a lighter than air vessel.
  • Discover of Hydrogen.

    Discover of Hydrogen.
    Hydrogen was discovered by the English physicist Henry Cavendish in 1766. The discovery led to the development of the first hydrogen balloon.
  • Flew of the first unmanned hot air balloon.

    Flew of the first unmanned hot air balloon.
    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers, including Jacques-Étienne and Joseph-Michel, flew the first unmanned hot air balloon over Annonay, France. The same year, they flew a piloted, tethered hot air balloon. Later, they launched their first untethered hot air balloon flight, which flew nine kilometers in about 25 minutes. The hot air balloon became exceptionally popular during the late 18th century, which led to the discovery of the relationship between altitude and atmosphere.
  • Invention of airships.

    Invention of airships.
    The first successful airship was constructed by Henri Giffard of France in 1852.
    The invention of airships came to solve the issue with hot air balloons. Unlike hot air balloons, airships used hydrogen or helium gas to lift and were the first ones to carry passengers over long distances.
  • Heavier-Than-Air Aircraft.

    Heavier-Than-Air Aircraft.
    Despite the numerous advancements of lighter-than-air aircraft, their existence was short-lived and overshadowed by the invention of the heavier-than-air airplane. In 1896, Samuel Pierpont Langley was the first to launch an unmanned heavier-than-air aircraft on a sustained flight successfully.
  • Santos-Dumont make his first flight.

    Santos-Dumont make his first flight.
    The first airship designed by Santos-Dumont, the No. 1, was 25 metres long with a volume of 186 cubic metres, made its first takeoff attempt in February 1898,after being inflated in Henri Lachambre's workshops in Vaugirard. Snowy conditions caused the airship to flex and crash. "At a height of five or six metres, over Longchamp, the apparatus suddenly bent and the crash began. Of my entire career, this is the most abominable memory I have in store".
  • Beginning of the first Zeppelin's airship.

    Beginning of the first Zeppelin's airship.
    Actual construction then started of what was to be the first successful rigid airship, the Zeppelin LZ1.
  • Period: to

    The Wright Brothers in the History of Aviation.

    Between 1900 and 1902, the Wright Brothers, Wilbur and Orville Wright from Dayton, Ohio, designed and tested numerous glider and kite models. They built a wind tunnel and then created various devices to measure the drag and lift on more than two hundred wing designs. Finally, their third glider was a success as it outdid its predecessors, which heavily contributed to the aeronautical engineering field.
  • Creation of "Deutsch Prize".

    Creation of "Deutsch Prize".
    On 24 March 1900, the Jewish millionaire oil magnate Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe sent the President of the Aéro-Club de France, a letter in which he promised 100,000 francs to anyone who could invent an efficient flying machine.
    The challenge became known as the Deutsch Prize. The regulations stipulated that an aircraft must be able to fly to the Eiffel Tower, round the monument, and return to the place of ascent in no more than thirty minutes, without stops, a total of 11 kilometres.
  • First flight of Zeppelin.

    First flight of Zeppelin.
    On 2 July 1900, Zeppelin made the first flight with the LZ 1 over Lake Constance near Friedrichshafen in southern Germany. The airship rose from the ground and remained in the air for 20 minutes, but was damaged on landing.
  • Santos-Dumont completed No. 5's flight.

    Santos-Dumont completed No. 5's flight.
    On 13 July 1901, After some experimental outings, Santos-Dumont competed with No. 5 in the Deutsch Award for the first time. It completed the required course, but exceeded the time limit for the race by ten minutes.
  • Santos-Dumont complete a succesfuly flight.

    Santos-Dumont complete a succesfuly flight.
    On 19 October 1901, with the No. 6 powered by a 20 hp engine, Dumont executed the test in 29 minutes and 30 seconds, but it took about a minute to land, which caused the committee to initially deny the award.This became a matter of controversy, as the public and Deutsch believed that the aviator had won. After some time and the aviator protesting this decision, it was reversed. He became internationally recognised as the world's greatest aviator and the inventor of the airship.
  • Leonardo Torres' Zeppelin.

    Leonardo Torres' Zeppelin.
    In 1902, Leonardo Torres Quevedo launched his version of The Zeppelin, which dealt with the balancing problems of the first Zeppelin.
  • The first crewed heavier-than-air flight.

    The first crewed heavier-than-air flight.
    On December 17th, 1903, the Wright brothers successfully built and launched the first crewed heavier-than-air flight. This is also the universally recognized date that launched modern aviation. On that day, they made a total of four flights in their simple aircraft, with the longest one piloted by Wilbur, covering 852 feet in 49 seconds.
  • 14-bis (Oiseau de proie)

    14-bis (Oiseau de proie)
    In 1906, Alberto Santos-Dumont set the world record by flying his aircraft, “14-bis,” 220 meters (about twice the length of a football field) in 21.5 seconds over Paris. He also advanced the design by incorporating moveable parts to the wings to gain lateral stability.
  • Demoiselle No.19 y No. 20. First mass-produced.

    Demoiselle No.19 y No. 20. First mass-produced.
    In 1908, Santos-Dumont Demoiselle started working with Clement-Bayard company to build the first mass-produced aircraft, the Demoiselle No. 19 (No. 20 [The No. 19 get modifications and became de No. 20, that was the one that was mass-produced]).
  • First "Ace."

    First "Ace."
    In 1914, Roland Garros attached a machine gun to his aircraft, making him the first “ace” (military aviator).
  • First Airline.

    First Airline.
    The world’s first regularly scheduled heavier-than-air airline took off from the Municipal Pier in St. Petersburg on New Year’s Day 1914. The airline was known as the St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line.
  • Period: to


    Aircraft were first used in active combat on a large scale in World War I. This played a decisive role in the First World War. France became the leading aircraft manufacturer during the war, producing over 68,000 airplanes between 1914 and 1918.
  • Firts aerial victory.

    Firts aerial victory.
    Kurt Wintgens secured his first aerial victory using a fighter plane designed with a machine gun.
  • Boeing foundation.

    Boeing foundation.
    As a leading global aerospace company, Boeing develops, manufactures and services commercial airplanes, defense products and space systems for customers in more than 150 countries. As a top U.S. exporter, the company leverages the talents of a global supplier base to advance economic opportunity, sustainability and community impact.
  • First international passenger flight.

    First international passenger flight.
    On August 25, 1919, the first regular international passenger air service took place between London and Paris.
  • Douglas DC-3 first flight.

    Douglas DC-3 first flight.
    The Douglas DC-3 had a lasting effect on the airline industry in the 1930s to 1940s and World War II. A reliable all-metal passenger airplane with rubberized seats to reduce vibrations and noise-deadening plastic insulation, helped make flying more comfortable and accessible for new travelers.
  • Hidenburg disaster (End of Airship Era).

    Hidenburg disaster (End of Airship Era).
    The disaster killed 35 persons on the airship, and one member of the ground crew, but miraculously 62 of the 97 passengers and crew survived. After more than 30 years of passenger travel on commercial zeppelins — in which tens of thousands of passengers flew over a million miles, on more than 2,000 flights, without a single injury — the era of the passenger airship came to an end in a few fiery minutes.
  • Period: to


    During World War II, nearly all nations increased their production and development of aircraft and flight-based systems. The military used fighter bombers, strategic bombers, dive bombers, and ground-attack aircraft. By the end of the Second World War, there were airports or landing strips in many cities and towns. During this period, civil aviation experienced tremendous growth because military aircraft were repurposed as personal or airliner planes.
  • Arado Ar 234.

    Arado Ar 234.
    In 1942, Arado Ar 234, the first jet-powered bomber, was launched.
  • the Covention on International Civil Aviation.

    the Covention on International Civil Aviation.
    To standardize the safety, consistency, and efficiency of civil flights, the Convention on International Civil Aviation was established in 1944. Standardization of civil flights led to safer, more affordable airliners run by major carriers.
  • First supersonic flight

    First supersonic flight
    The first aircraft akwoledged to travel at supersonic speed was the U.S.-built Bell X-1 rocket powered experimental aircraft on a flight conducted on Oct. 14, 1947 by the U.S. Air Force. The aircraft reached Mach 1.06 (about 700 miles per hour).
  • North American X-15 first flight.

    North American X-15 first flight.
    As the fastest aircraft ever built, the North American x-15 is classified as hypersonic rather than supersonic since it can travel faster than five times the speed of sound. It still holds the record for the fastest manned aircraft, with the majority of later aircraft not even coming close. Its peak speed is 4520 mph (6.7 Mach). This set the official world record for the highest speed ever recorded by a crewed, powered aircraft, which remains unbroken.
  • Boeing 737 production.

    Boeing 737 production.
    The Boeing 737 is a narrow-body aircraft manufactured by Boeing in Renton Factory, Washington. It is the most produced aircraft in commercial aviation, with 10,877 planes delivered as of December 2021
  • Official launch of the Airbus A300 Programme.

    Official launch of the Airbus A300 Programme.
    The A300 programme was launched with a milestone agreement signed by French Transport Minister Jean Chamant and German Economics Minister Karl Schiller at the 1969 Paris Airshow, to build a commercial aircraft that was smaller, lighter and more economical than its three-engine American rivals.
  • Compuer-aided design and manufacturing software.

    Compuer-aided design and manufacturing software.
    The release of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing software in the 1970s facilitated the development of enhanced aircraft designs.
  • Airbus foundation.

    Airbus foundation.
    Airbus is a leader in designing, manufacturing and delivering aerospace products, services and solutions to customers on a worldwide scale. With around 130,000 employees and as the largest aeronautics and space company in Europe and a worldwide leader, Airbus is at the forefront of the aviation industry. They build the most innovative commercial aircraft and consistently capture about half of all commercial airliner orders.
  • Cathode-ray displays.

    Cathode-ray displays.
    Modern aircraft also come equipped with digital systems, eliminating most analog and mechanical instruments. During the 1980s, cathode-ray displays in the cockpit were replaced with more advanced computer-based electronic displays. A notable example was the Boeing 767’s glass cockpit in 1981.
  • Antonov An-225 Mriya maiden flight (Biggest aircraft ever).

    Antonov An-225 Mriya maiden flight (Biggest aircraft ever).
    On 21 December 1988, the An-225 performed its maiden flight; only a single example was ever completed, although a second airframe with a slightly different configuration was partially built. After a brief period of use supporting the Soviet space program, the aircraft was mothballed during the early 1990s. Towards the turn of the century, it was decided to refurbish the An-225 and reintroduce it for commercial operations, carrying oversized payloads for the operator Antonov Airlines.