History of Animation (World)

By Zarco
  • 39


    They made 32 propaganda shorts but did not use Mickey. Der Fuehrer's Face was an Oscar-winning short for Best Animated Short (1994). Hideki Tojo, Göring, Goebbels and Mussolini appear playing instruments in this short film. The short follows Donald Duck in "Nutziland", where he is seen haggard, eating war bread (kriegbrost) and working for the Nazis. Education for Death was an animation showing the manipulation of young minds in Germany.
  • Period: to

    Silent Era

  • James Blackton

    James Blackton animates with cuts his short film of Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, despite not being his first work (because there is no record of this). Tenkatsu Studio is formed in Japan and its first short is Katsudo Shashin
  • Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, James Blackton

    Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, James Blackton
  • Émile Cohl

    Émile Cohl
    Émile Cohl creates Fantasmagorie and is considered the Father of Animation for his use of crank-step machines.
  • 1910-1914

    Abstract animation is given in France and Italy with the use of colors (Gianna & Corra). In 1912 in Russia, entomologist Ladislas Starevich made a short film using dead insects as puppets. In Spain, Segundo de Chomón was compared to Méliès for his tricks and creativity. Winsor McCay introduces the first character relatable to Gertie and is used for the first time as key frame animation.
  • Gertie the Dinosaour, Winsor McCay

    Gertie the Dinosaour, Winsor McCay
  • 1915

    The Fleischer brothers create the rotoscope (without patenting it) and join Bray Studios to make Out of the Inkwell.
  • 1917

    In Argentina, Qurinino Cristiani created El Apóstol (1st feature film of political satire). In Japan, the first feature film with sound in the East is created, Genkanban no Maki by Oten Shimokawa and later Shinto no Maki.
  • Genkanban no Maki

    Genkanban no Maki
  • Out of the Inkwell

    Out of the Inkwell
  • Felix the Cat

    Felix the Cat
    Pat Sullivan and Otto Messmer create Felix The Cat, who becomes very popular and started to be used for making movies.
  • 1920-1927

    Walter Disney and Ub Iwerks start a studio that did newspaper ads and later create Laugh-O-Gram Films. There was also the beginning of the Avant-Garde movement in Europe that lasted until the 70s with artists such as Oskar Fishinger and others from the US, UK and Germany. In this period, the artists continued their work, producing shorts such as Alice's Wonderland (Disney) and Aesop's Fables (Paul Terry), among others.
  • Steamboat Willie

    Steamboat Willie
    Disney performs Steamboat Willie, where Mickey makes his commercial debut and synchronized sound is used for the 1st time.
  • Period: to

    Golden Age

  • 1929

    The first Silly Symphonies short film, Skeleton Dance, is created. These shorts would be produced until the late 1930s.
  • 1930s

    1930s Pluto (The Chain Gang)
    Goofy (Mickey's Revue)
    Flip the Frog
    Betty Boop (Dizzy Dishes)
    Bosko (The Talk-Ink Kid)
    Buddy (Buddy's Show Boat)
    Porky the Pig (I Haven't Got a Hat)
    Daffy the Duck (Porky's Duck Hunt)
    Bugs Bunny (Porky's Hare Hunt/A Wild Hare)
  • Koko, Betty Boop, Bosko

    Koko, Betty Boop, Bosko
  • 1931-1936

    Warner Bros. produces a short series called Merrie Melodies with music from Brunswick Records, their first short was Lady Play Your Mandolin. In 1932, Disney produced Flowers and Trees, in which he used 3 Technicolor full color strip and won an Oscar. At Paramount Popeye, already known in comics, appears and more than 100 shorts are released until 1939.
  • Flowers and Trees

    Flowers and Trees
  • The Old Mill

    The Old Mill
  • 1937-1941

    In 1937, Disney experimented with the multiplane camera at The Old Mill. In 1938, Chuck Jones joins Leon Schlesinger Prod. And makes his directorial debut. Snow White & The Seven Dwarfs is released in February of the same year. In 1940 Disney debuted Pinocchio, his first feature film with the use of a multiplane camera. In 1941, Paramount made a series of Superman and Disney premiered Fantasia with the music of Leopold Stokowski.
  • U.S.A

    A time of persuasive communication begins with war propaganda that showed Hitler as the villain, ridiculing him U.S Disney, MGM, Warner Bros, Paramount and others made short and moral boosting films contracted by the Navy. Animated, friendly and trustworthy heroes delivered to the homeland were used. It was all part of the American Way of Life.
  • Others

    Fleischer They used Popeye and Superman in their shorts. Warner Bros The Japanese (nips, japs) were completely ridiculed. They used rude, sarcastic and direct graphics. One of his shorts, Private Snafu from 1943, was censored for its satire and rawness. Like Disney, Warner works on insignia for the military.
  • Period: to

    Second World War (1939-1945)

  • Animators' strike in 1941

    Animators' strike in 1941
    Due to the Great Depression, many industry employees feared for their integrity and thus the Screen Cartoonists Guild union came to fruition. At Disney, about $ 15 million was lost and people worked 6 days a week with abysmal differences in wages. Due to financial readjustments, Fleischer Studios was taken over by Paramount. Studies like MGM, Walter Lantz and George Pal quickly recognized the union as unlike Disney.
  • Bambi

    Bambi is made, based on a story by Felix Salten. It was in production for 5 years and showed profits in 1947. The entertainers were sent to Vermont to train in the movements of the animals.
  • Period: to

    Animation During and After World War II

  • Japon

    Komatsuzawa Hajime directs Evil Mickey Attacks Japan (1943). This short was animated in the American style and featured an evil Mickey Mouse. Mitsuyo Seo directs Momotaro's Sea Eagles (1943) with the iconic Momotaro character in a naval unit attacking Pearl Harbor. In the same year he directed Momotaro Dios de las Olas. Seo became part of the Shochiku Doga Kenkyusho, where Kenzō Masaoka also worked.
  • 1943

    Package Films were created which were low-budget films with live action and had a theme. Among these are: Greetings Friends (1943)
    The Three Knights (1945)
    Song of the South (1946) for which James Baskett wins an Oscar
  • Japan

    Kenzo Masaoka performs Spider and the Tulip. This short film received opposition from the government as it did not align with war propaganda.
  • 1950

    Cinderella is made, which was originally going to be a Silly Symphony.
  • 1951

    Alice is out in Wonderland. Scripts for it had been developed between 1930 and 1940, based on a story by Lewis Carroll and conceptual art by Mary Blair.
  • 1953

    Peter Pan (concept art by Mary Blair).
  • Eurepa

    Czech Republic: The Fabulous World of Jules Verne
    Croatia: Samac by Zagreb Film School 1967
    Belgium: Asterix le Gaulois by Belvision Studios. The creators of Asterix, René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo, did not know about this feature film. 1968
    United Kingdom: Yellow Submarine by George Dunning. Based on this, a television series was made. 1969
    Osvaldo Cavandoli performs The Line. This is the first Italian animated film. This later became a comic and TV series from 1972 to 1990.
  • Period: to

    TV Age

  • Disney

    Sleeping Beauty directed by Ken Anderson is released, which was a decade in development and was so far his most sophisticated and most expensive film. 1961
    101 Dalmatians is released, a feature film that uses the Xerox process to transfer the animator's drawings directly to the animation cels. 1966
    On December 15, Walt Disney dies at age 65. 1967
    The Jungle Book is produced with many of the old Disney animators.
  • Astro boy

    Astro boy
    Astro Boy created by Osamu Tezuka has a series by Mushi Productions that airs on NBC in the west.
  • Warner brothers

    The Porky Pig Show, a collection of Looney Tunes and merry Melodies shorts from 1935 to 1963, premieres. 1965
    Warner Bros. closes its animation studio. 1966
    The Road Runner Show, a short anthology series of Looney Tunes and Merry Melodies shorts from 1946 to 1966, premieres. 1970s
    Warner was inactive regarding new productions. Many of his shorts were censored on television because of their content. 1980
    Warner reopens its doors and begins producing specials with Looney Tunes characters.
  • Poster de Kimba The White Lion

    Poster de Kimba The White Lion
  • Sazae-San

    Sazae-San, family drama series.
  • Japanese

    Japanese animation goes into recession.
  • U.S.A (1970-1972)

    Lillian Schwartz makes the short Pixilation made entirely on the computer. John and Faith Hubley produce Eggs. Ralph Bakshi directs Fritz The Cat, an adult comedy feature film based on the Robert Crumb comic. In 1971 Richard Williams creates A Christmas Carol based on the Charles Dickens novel. Then in 1972 he won an Oscar.
  • Dark Age (1970-1988)

    En ésta época el estudio intenta buscar su lugar sin Walt Disney a su lado. Crean historias más oscuras, las cuales no tienen mucho éxito. Se empiezan a alejar de la animación tradicional.
  • The Aristocats

     The Aristocats
    The Aristocats directed by Wolf Reitherman is released.
  • Robin Hood

     Robin Hood
    Robin Hood is done.
  • Space Battleship Yamato

    Space Battleship Yamato
    Yoshinobu Nishizaki's Space Battleship Yamato series. It becomes a social phenomenon with the "boom" of the mecha. In this decade of the 70s there are several anime "mecha" such as G-Force, Battle of the Planets, Great Mazinger and Star Blazers.
  • 1976

    Belgium: Peyo and Eddie Lateste direct The Smurfs and the Magic Flute. The Smurfs had first appeared in the Spirou journal. Italy: Bruno Bozzetto performs Allegro Non Troppo, which is considered to be Italy's reaction to Disney's Fantasia.
  • The Castle of Cagliostro

    The Castle of Cagliostro
    Hayao Mizayaki becomes the "Japanese Disney" with his directorial and writer debut in The Castle of Cagliostro, with art director Heidi.
  • Pixar

    Edwin Catmull, Alvy Ray Smith joins a division at LucasFilm Design. 1981
    They develop REYES (Renders Everything You Ever Saw) which was the predecessor of RenderMan and allowed advances such as particle effects, motion blur and textured surfaces. With REYES they make advances such as The Road to Point Reyes which is the first resolution image of a film made on a computer.
  • 1980

    France: Paul Grimault directs The King and the Mockingbird after many years in production in collaboration with the poet Jacques Prévert. This film is inspired by the art of Giorgio di Chirico.
  • 1981

    United Kingdom: John Halas performs Dilemma, the first full digital feature. Gerald Scarfe directs and animates sections of Pink Floyd The Wall, in a satirical, aggressive and wild style.
  • Vincent

    Tim Burton introduces Vincent to Disney, an impressionistic, gothic short. It was considered out of the Disney style but funding is provided. It is here that Burton's curved designs become his signature feature. Tron directed by Steven Lisberger is performed. This feature film in many ways ushered in a new era. It has more than 800 takes where the actors are in computer generated environments.
  • 1983

    England: Mark Hall and Chris Taylor direct the stop-motion film The Wind in the Willows, which then makes a TV series with 52 episodes. This animation had great detail and textures.
  • Pixar

    John Lasseter is hired full-time, joining the Division as an Interface designer. The Adventures of André & Wally B, the first computer-made short film, is introduced. 1986
    The division was purchased by Steve Jobs, where Pixar Image Computer System was developed. Pixar and Disney collaborate on CAPS (Computer Animation Production System) to get rid of the tedious process of ink and paint in 2D animation. They present the short Luxo Jr. and Red’s Dream.
  • Period: to

    DIGITAL ERA (1985-Present)

    In this era, many studies took initiative towards new paths and concepts with new technologies.
  • The Great Mouse Detective

     The Great Mouse Detective
    Ron Clements directs The Great Mouse Detective. This is the most successful film at this time.
  • Blue Sky Studios

    Blue Sky Studios
    Chris Wedge, Carl Ludwig, Alison & David Brown start by creating commercials for companies like M & Ms and Texaco. They started collaborating with visual effects on A Simple Wish (1997), Alien Insurrection (1997) and Star Trek IX (1998)
  • Pixar

    Pixar's patented animation system, Menv, and RenderMan go live. With this software the short Tin Toy is produced. 1989
    Knick Knack performed. It is the first Pixar animation produced in stereoscopic 3D.
  • Renaissance (1989-1995)

    Renaissance (1989-1995)
    Disney returned to musical narrations and full of fantasy. There was a creative resurgence that spawned many Disney classics.
  • 1989

    The Little Mermaid directed by Ron Clements and John Musker is released. It was a success in sales and critically. It won 2 Oscars and was done in traditional animation.
  • 1990

    Disney's first feature film on the computer, The Rescuers Down Under; sequel to The Rescuers.
  • 1992

    Ron Clements and John Musker direct Aladdin. Win 2 Oscars and incorporate 3D effects.
  • 1994

    The Lion King based on Hamlet is released. The animators were sent to Kenya to study the animals. It is a great success and wins 2 Oscars.
  • 1995

    Pocahontas presents interracial romance based on a true story.
  • 1995

    Toy Story, the world's first computer-animated film, opens.
  • 1996

    Disney presents The Hunchback of Notre Dame. This movie was darker in tone and like Pocahontas it was based on real events.
  • 1998

    Mulan opens, based on a Chinese legend. It is the first Disney movie with an Asian heroine.
  • 1998-Present

    Since Toy Story's success, Pixar has made several movies. A Bug's Life (1998)
    Toy Story 2 (1999)
    Monsters, Inc. (2001)
    Finding Nemo (2003)
    The Incredibles (2004)
    Cars (2006)
    Ratatouille (2007)
    WALL-E (2008)
    Up (2009)
    Toy Story 3 (2010)
    Cars 2 (2011)
    Brave (2012)
    Monsters University (2013)
    Inside Out (2015)
    The Good Dinosaur (2015)
    Finding Dory (2016)
    Cars 3 (2017)
    Coco (2017)
  • 1998

    They make the short Bunny and are bought by Fox after winning an Oscar in 1999. Production of the Ice Age begins. With their CGI Studio technology they have created movies like: Ice Age (2002)
    Robots (2005)
    Ice Age: The Meltdown (2006)
    Dr. Seuss' Horton Hears a Who! (2008)
    Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009)
    Rio (2011)
    Ice Age: Continental Drift (2012)
    Epic (2013)
    Rio 2 (2014)
    The Peanuts Movie (2015)
  • 1999

    A 1912 magazine inspires Tarzan. This film has many scenes made entirely on the computer, including camera movements.
  • Post-Renaissance (2000-2007)

    Post-Renaissance (2000-2007)
  • 2000

    Se realiza Fantasia 2000, en donde se recuerda el aniversario de la original y se recuperan 124 minutos de la misma. Las Locuras del Emperador dirigida por Mark Dindal. Está inspirada en elementos incaicos.
  • 2002

    Se realiza Lilo & Stitch, lo que genera una serie con gran éxito. Clements y Musker dirigen Treasure Planet basado en la novela delSe realiza Lilo & Stitch, lo que genera una serie con gran éxito. Clements y Musker dirigen Treasure Planet basado en la novela del mismo nombre.
  • 2003

    Hermano Oso, película que toma lugar en América.
  • 2005

    Mark Dindal dirige Chicken Little. Ésta fue la última película en VHS y fue la primera en ser totalmente computarizada.
  • 2006

    Disney compra Pixar por 7.4 billones de dólares y promueve a John Lasseter para supervisar todos los proyectos de Disney * Pixar.
  • Revival Era (2008-Presente)

    Revival Era (2008-Presente)
  • 2008

    Disney's third CGI film Bolt is released.
  • 2009

    The Princess and the Frog, the first traditional animated film since 2004.
  • 2012

    Wreck-it-Ralph, which has been in development since the 1980s, is released.
  • 2016

    Zootopia, a film that reflects many aspects of today's animal society, is released. Moana also premieres. Use more contemporary themes like self-discovery.