History of 2D Animation

By Smu93
  • Magic Lantern

    Magic Lantern
    The "Magic Lantern" circa 1650 was an early image projector, considered the first 2D animation. It works much like modern projector, it uses a mirror infront of a light source which then projects it through an image on a slide. When images are passed through in succession it gives the viewer the perception that the image is moving this is also known as "Persistence of Vision"
  • Thaumatrope

    The Thaumastrope, orginally used as a children toy was a Victorian method of animation, it was a circular piece of paper or cardboard that had to strings attached to the opposite ends and two pictures drawn on to it, one the back and one on the front. When twisted it caused the "Phi Phenomenon". It is a type of optiacal illusion that is very similar to the idea of persistence of vision, the image on one side still reamains on our vision for a quater of a second so it seems that it is animate.
  • Phenakistoscope

    This device was invented by Joseph Plateau in 1831 it was a disk with several slits and with several pictures drawn around the centre it was then attached to a a handle and placed infront of a mirror then spun around. When you look through the slits the quick succession of images appeared to show motion. This is known as Phi.
  • Zoetrope

    The Zoetrope from the greek literally meaning "active turn" was a device that is very similar to the Phenakistoscope, it used the same principle of phi and looking through slits at a relfection of the image but this one was shaped like a band and placed around the inside of a cylinder, the rapid movement gives the illusionof motion
  • Flip Book

    Flip Book
    The Flipbook is a book that has a picture drawn on each page, Each page varies from the last slightly and when the book is flicked through it gives the illusion of moment.This like many earlier forms of animation uses persistence of vision to work.
  • Praxinoscope

    The Praxinoscope, invented by Charles-Émile Reynaud was a animation device that was considered the successor of the zoetrope. It worked in a very similar fashion but instead replaced the narrow slits with a circle of mirrors on the inside, this meant that the images apperaed to stay less still and offered a better illsuion of motion.
  • Stop Motion

    Stop Motion
    Stop motion animation was first inveted by Albert E. Smith and J. Stuart Blackton. It was done by drawing a scene on paper then a slightly varying picture on another piece of paper, then a photo was taken of each of the pictures and played in succession.
  • Cel Animation

    Cel Animation
    Cel animation or "Celluloud" Animation was a technique used mostly during the begingin part of the 20th century. It woks buy having several layers and a background known as a key frame. The Key frame is usually a painted image that is on a opaque piece of paper while the other layers on top were made of "cels" transparent plastic in where the charachters were drawn. Still images are photographed and then adjusted slightly in each photo to give the illusion of motion when played in succession.
  • Tweening

    Inbetweening or tweening is the process of generating intermediate frames between two images to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image. Inbetweens are the drawings between the key frames which help to create the illusion of motion.*
    Fantasmagorie is one of the first animations to use this method. *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inbetweening
  • Rotoscoping

    Rotoscoping invented by Max and Dave Fleischer, is the process of animating over a live action image, the animator would draw over a still real life image and turn it into a a drawing, this will be done for each frame. In this method the aim is to capture natural motion.
  • Synchronised Animation

    Synchronised Animation
    "Steam Boat willie" By Disney Animation is considered to be the first animation with Synchronised sound, this means that sound effects and music are timed to the events taking plae in the animation and not just a background music through out the animation. This was shot in 24 fps. Frame rate is number of frames displayed in a second.
  • Technicolor

    The first Colour animation is considred to be Flowers and Trees by Walt Disney even though firsrt invented in 1916. This used the three strip technicolour system which captured three colours Red, Green and Blue.
  • Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

    Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
    This was the first full feature film that was entirely animated it was created by Walt Disney Studios, It contributed to the further success it would find in the near future. Cel Animation was used as well as Technicolor
  • Stereophonic Sound

    Stereophonic Sound
    Fantasia an Animated film by Walt Disney Studios was the first to use steropphonic sound.
  • Widescreen Format

     Widescreen Format
    Lady and the Tramp again by Walt Disney Studios was the first ot produce an animated film in widescreen format
  • Xerography

    101 Dalmations is the first film to use xerography process (replacing hand inking), It was created in 1961 by Walt Disney Studios
  • Computer-Generated Imagery

    Computer-Generated Imagery
    Rock and Rule Created by MGM pictures is the first Animated film to use Computer-Generated Imagery
  • Computer Animation Production System

    Computer Animation Production System
    The Rescuers Down Under was the first animated film to not use a camera to capture drawings rather it used disneys Computer Animation Production System.
  • First Flash-animated film

    First Flash-animated film
    Magos y Gigantes a spanish animated film was the first to be completly animated using Flash software.