History and Progression of Inclusion Timeline

  • Inclusion Prior to 1950

    Inclusion Prior to 1950
    Prior to the 1950 student's with disabilities were just beginning to be recognized as a population should should receive educational instruction.Special schools were created for students, but served as residential facilities or institutions. Attitudes began to shift in the mid 1920's as educators began to see the value of education and community involvement for individuals with disabilities. The being said special education was only offered in large cities.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    In this landmark case the Supreme Court ruled that it was against the law to discriminate against any group of people. The case ended legal segregation in public schools.
  • Dept. of Public Welfare vs. Haas

    Dept. of Public Welfare vs. Haas
    The Supreme Court of Illinois state that students with mental disabilities were NOT entitled to a free public education because they were unable to reap the benefits of a good education.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
    This new law was established to provide federal funds to school that had a high population of low-income families. This legislation also established free and reduced meals or FARMS.
  • Diana vs. State Board of Education

    Diana vs. State Board of Education
    In California, a court decided that students cannot be placed into special education classes based solely on culturally biased assessments, including intelligence tests.
  • Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    This landmark case laid the foundation for the right of all students with disabilities to be provided with a free public education. Least restrictive environment was also established.
  • Mills vs. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

    Mills vs. Board of Education of the District of Columbia
    Case established the constitutional right for all students with disabilities to have a right to an education.
  • Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504)

    Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504)
    This legislation prevents individuals with disabilities from being discriminated by any institution that receives federal funds and provides for a free and public education (FAPE). The Act of 1973 also defined the terms of handicapped person and appropriate education. The Section 504 was also established for students that do not qualify for special education.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) now IDEA

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) now IDEA
    Known as the mainstreaming law, this mandated that all children were entitled to a free, public education and that special education was to be provided in the least restrictive environment. Students with disabilities were no longer to be excluded from the general education classroom. It also required individualized education programs (IEPs).
  • Board of Education vs. Rowley

    Board of Education vs. Rowley
    This course clarified the definition of Free Appropriate Public Education or FAPE and mandated the school provided appropriate special education services.
  • Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments

    Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments
    Children ages birth through 2 years with disabilities and expand services for preschool age children (ages 3-5 years) were now included in IDEA.
  • Honig vs. Doe

    Honig vs. Doe
    This case ruled that suspension longer than a 10 day period was a change of placement. It also stated that IDEA was violated when a student was suspended infidelity for behavior related to disability identified on IEP.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

    The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
    This law established that individuals with disabilities should be provided with reasonable accommodations and could not be discriminated against. This law included students enrolled in colleges and universities.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1990 (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1990 (IDEA)
    IDEA replaced Education for All Handicapped Children Act and established "people-first language". It added traumatic brain injury and autism as categories of disability and required the development of transition services for students by ate 16.
  • Oberti vs. Board of Education

    Oberti vs. Board of Education
    This case ruled that self-contained special education classrooms was not the least restrictive environment. Therefore, school district must consider general education placement with supports before considering more intensive alternative placements.
  • Cedar Rapids vs Garrett F.

    Cedar Rapids vs Garrett F.
    Case rules that nursing services can be provided through students through supplemental services with no additional cost to parents, to ensure that students could attend classes.
  • No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
    This law was enacted to provide flexibility in how states would use federal funds as long as accountability measures have been met. The law offers school choice for students enrolled in failing schools.
  • RTI (Response to Intervention) 2004

    RTI (Response to Intervention) 2004
    In 2004 IDEA regulations outlined specifications for schools to use response to instructional intervention as part of the identification process. RTI was designed to prevent academic failure through early intervention, frequent progress monitoring, and a system of evidence-based interventions implemented in tiers for students who fail to respond sufficiently. Students who do not respond to these interventions are eligible for referral for special education services.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004
    In 2004, IDEA was amended to the Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act. In addition to allowing schools to use a RTI model, IDEIA increased federal funds for early intervention services and eliminated short-term objectives in a student's IEP. Standards were raised for special education licensure and child find was established, requiring states to identify and track the number of students with disabilities and to plan for their educational needs.
  • IDEA to 2005

    IDEA to 2005
    30 years after IDEA was enacted, over 6.7 million children were receiving special education services. 295,000 infants and toddlers were being served under Part C of IDEA.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
    ESSA eliminated all references to the term “highly qualified” first introduced in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and then incorporated into the IDEA in the 2004 amendments. Added several specific requirements regarding special education teachers teaching to alternate achievement standards and special education teachers teaching multiple subjects.
  • Future of Inclusion

    Future of Inclusion
    Great strides have been made toward inclusion of all students, however there are many things that need to be considered. A students with special needs in the classroom will require accommodations and often times the general educator does not know how to enact upon these. Training and co-teaching models should become the norm within schools. The general education and special educator should established times and routines to collaboratively plan to meet the needs of all students.