HIS timeline

  • Jan 1, 1514

    Science and Medicine Advanced (1514 - 1657)

    Two major contributors to medicine and science were Vesalius and Harvey. William Harvey worked on experiments on the heart and blood that included research on things such as arteries and veins. He was important because of his contribution to the knowledge on how blood circulated throughout the human body. Vesalius was important because he accomplished much work on dissections.
  • Francis Bacon (1620)

    He wrote the book Novum Organum which detailed his scientific method. He believed that learning took place from going from the 'particular' to the 'general'. He encouraged scientists to view the world in an unbiased fashion and conduct experiments in this form. His intention was to change the traditional views of interpreting knowledge. The scientific method was important because it was widely held by the western world and is still in use today.
  • Newton (1642)

    Newton writes a famous work of mathematics called Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy during years of great thought. This book contained laws that explained gravitation as well as theories by other major scientists of this century such as:Copernicus, Kepler and Gaileo. He details the laws of motion in his first book Principia. His laws of gravitation had great affects on how people thought. Newton also incoporated his idea of god running everything he explained in his laws of motion.
  • The Enlightenment Age (1650–1800)

    Those of high education who consisted of the high culture were those such as poets, philosophers, scientists, dramatists, intellectuals and theologians. This was a time when the common person was earged to learn so that the society would be able to advance with ideals and technologies.
  • Voltaire (1694 - 1778)

    He touched on all themes of importance to the philosophes but he was best known for his criticism of the Catholic Church. He wrote the Treatise on Toleration which argued that religious toleration created no problems for England and Holland. Voltaire also believed in deism which was a religious view that conceived the universe as a regulated machine. To Voltaire and other deists, reason operated on natural laws that are not personal.
  • Poppulation Boom (1750)

    The population increased due to major diseases like the plague and smallpox becoming less common. These declines in death rates were due to mainly fewer premature deaths and more adequate nutrition. There was also an increase in food which allowed people to be better fed and more resistant to infectious agents. This was all posible with agricultual revolution by making farmers produce more output.
  • Seven Years War (1756 - 1763)

    The first is the colonial rivalry that was fought between France and England and the second was the struggle for dominance between Austria and Prussia the third was between France and Britian but in India. The Treaty of Paris helped Britain emerge as the world's main colonial empire and France lost a lot of its overseas possessions. For Russia, it was its first major involvement with European affairs. The Holy Roman Empire was also declared as an aggressor during this time.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft (1759 - 1797)

    She was important in helping to change other's views on how women should be treated. She made an effort to change things such as family, government, education and religious institutions. Her goals were to establish equality of both men and women. She was also important because she challenged sexist ways and was believed to be the founder of modern day women's rights.
  • The Industrial Revolution in Britain– (1760 - 1850)

    In the late 18th century England, the Industrial Revolution was a time when people figured out different ways of producing a product so it didn’t cost that much to make. Lots of the machines they made used steam powered engines to move the parts. There were methods to making items that were refined like an assembly line. There were transportation advances to increase productivity of the items the different countries sold. The human aspects of working in the factories were to maintan machinery.
  • Catherine the Great's Reign (1760 - 1790)

    Catherine the Great's reign is viewed as a defense for the ruling class's oppressions of peasants. This oppression was concealed by a false interest in progress and the enlightenment. She was considered sometimes generous and sometimes cruel and had goals of modernizing Russia. She loved to read and write as well as inspire debate. She also worked to erode methods that caused people to become serfs. Her reforms had a slow but significant impact socially and politically.
  • The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution (1760 – 1850)

    The Factory Acts were passed to keep children out of factories so they can grow up and create more jobs. The workers made the government lose some of its power over people so they didn’t owe them anything. Some idealists put the idea out that every rule they live by can be altered by the people if they control the government. Women mostly worked at home caring for the children and tending to the house. The men worked long hours with good pay, enought to save up for the future.
  • The American Revolution – (1775 – 1783)

    This war was also known as the "war for independence". The war came out of grievances that the colonists had against the British crown, most noticably, its extoranate taxation policy "without representation". The colonists fought to be free from British control. Through mostly guerilla warfare, the British were worn down to eventual surrender. This allowed the Americans to form their own independent government in which all citizens would be well represented.
  • The French Revolution – (1789 - 1799)

    The French used up a lot of resources fighting the British, and Americans for territory in what is now North America that their own country of France was poor. The lack of money in their country made it so the everyday person could not afford to live. The French population was also getting enlightened so they were starting to think more rational and wanted to know why they didn’t have as much power as the aristocrats in the current government.
  • The Rise of Napoleon (1799)

    Napoleon was a military genius that took the role of leader for the poor and discarded people of France. He used people’s emotions to control them to do his business for him. He ended up taking control over most of France, and proclaiming himself Emperor. During the French Revolution the French viewed him as a hero because he was a commoner who gained power and wanted to change the ways of living in France.
  • Romanticism (1800's)

    Romanticism was important because it showed a new expression of emotions and individualism. Many romantics had a strong interest in the past. Some forms of Romanticism were seen in forms of literature such as novels or poetry. Some other romantics, who loved to worship nature; delved into pantheism. There were also romantic artists that felt like their art was an expression of inner feelings.
  • Industrial Revolution in the U.S. - (1820 - 1870)

    There were a few incidents at first with trading with the British. Later tariffs were made so the country who bought the good couldn’t sell it for a profit elsewhere. The machinery used in the factories was called ‘replaceable parts’. This made them standardized and easily fixed. A man named Samuel Slater with a photographic memory, ‘stole’ the factory designs of the British and rebuilt them in America. This is how he was able to pass British customs, and allow industrialization in America.
  • The Revolution of 1830

    . King Charles X takes over the thrown after Louis the XVIII died and he was a big supporter of absolutism; which made him the head of power at that time but people didn’t like it. The cause of this revolution was when Charles X issued the July Ordinances. The king wanted every rioter to be arrested so there was no one in his way. The revolution of 1830 was important because the French armies were more unified and the people now controlled the government.
  • Communist Manifesto (1847)

    The Communist Manifesto was published in 1847. It attempts to explain the goals of Communism. It was created with the idea that authors wanted to set forth their plan for a proletarian revolution against the prevailing socio-economic forces in Europe. It was important because it became known as the most influential secular document in world history. This book was based on ruling class struggles. It promoted the idea of a society without classes.
  • The Revolution of 1848

    In France, industrial and agricultural depression brought hardship. Since, Louis-Philippe’s government refused to make changes opposition grew which led to revolutions. These revolutions led to revolutions in the Germanic states when they heard the news. This caused many German rulers to promise various liberal reforms. The Austrian empire also had social, political and nationalist problems. The news of France’s revolutions caused these problems to become ignited in Austria.
  • Emancipation of Russian Serfs (1861)

    Emancipating the serfs in 1861 was a key event that bombarded Russia into the 20th century.It was the first and most liberal reform affected during the reign of Alexander II of Russia. When Alexander II freed the serfs in Russia in 1861 the serfs were never truly freed. The Russian government bought land from the landowners to give to the serfs, but the serfs were required to repay the Russian government. These repayments took 49 years and the serfs stayed on the land until it was paid off.
  • The Appearance of Italy (1861)

    . After the downfall of Napoleon Bonaparte, Vienna was divided and the formation of Italy happened. This was the result of the breakdown of the concert of Europe which allowed Italians and Germans to establish states. Intelectual changes made the change in tradional values of the noble families stripping them of power.
  • William Gladstone (1880)

    Gladstone's first major office was that of President of the Board of Trade. In his second ministry, he was the Chancellor of the Exchequer in Aberdeen's government. He cut duties and attempted to abolish income tax. His wishes failed due to the need for funds to carry on the Crimean War. He also served in Palmerston's second ministry; again effecting tax reductions. When Palmerston died, Gladstone stayed on as Chancellor of the Exchequer under Russell through 1866.
  • Alexander III (1881)

    He introduced repression of opponents as the corner stone of his reign. Alexander had three main beliefs: Repression of opponents, undoing the reforms of his father and to restore Russia’s position internationally and also her national identity. He believed this national identity had been diluted throughout the 19th century. Alexander III was important because he was a powerful influence over reforms that took place in Russia during this time.
  • Sigmund Freud (1886)

    Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, He best known for his tendency to trace nearly all psychological problems back to sexual issues. Only parts of his theory of psychosexual development are still accepted by mainstream psychologists. Freud was the most influential psychological theorist of 20th-century. His theories including the concept of the Oedipus complex have had an enormous influence on art, literature, and social thinking.
  • Bismarck as German Chancellor (1889)

    The only person to hold the office was Otto von Bismarck, the Prime Minister of Prussia. Germany became the first nation in the world to adopt an old-age social insurance program in 1889, designed by Germany's Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck introduced social insurance in Germany both in order to promote the well-being of workers in order to keep the German economy operating at maximum efficiency.
  • Women’s Social and Political Union (1903)

    In Manchester. Emmeline Pankhurst founded the Women's Social and Political Union and, Christabel Pankhurst, was to become a stalwart member. The main objective was to gain, not universal suffrage, the vote for all women and men over a certain age, but votes for women, “on the same basis as men.” the WSPU wanted votes for women on the same terms as men, and specifically not votes for all women. They considered this unfair as in 1903 only a third of men had the vote in parliamentary elections.
  • Russo Japanese War (1904 - 1905)

    Developed out of a rivalry between Russia and Japan for dominance in Korea and Manchuria. War began on Feb 8, 1904 with a Japanese naval attack on Port Arthur. It was a military conflict where Japan forced Russia to abandon its expansionist policy in the Far East. In March, the Japanese had an army land in Korea that quickly took over the country. In May, another Japanese army planted themselves on the Liaotung Peninsula. Japan forced Russia to abandon its exspantion policy in the far east.
  • The Great War (1914 - 1918)

    It was a major war centered on Europe, started in the summer of 1914, ended in November 1918. Austria got defeated by the Russians and thrown out of Serbia. Italians were no longer allied with Germany & Austria, they also attacked Austria. Ottoman Empire joined the war on Germany’s side in 1914. Later on Russia, Great Britain & France, declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Austria, Germany and Russia could not get agree on Balkan policy.
  • Revolutionary Era in the Soviet Union (1914-1916)

    The lack of bread lighted the fire of the dry tinder of the revolution. The Russians were not going to take it anymore and they started to go toward there own government. When people started to take back powers from the government they wanted political prisoners to be freed, this action brought some of the most radical leaders back into Petrograd.
  • Russian revolution (1917)

    During the Russian revolution, the Russian industry was unable to make weapons for the army. Estimates of 4 to 6 million people had been wounded and captured. During the March Revolution, actions of working class women helped change the course of Russian history. Petrograd women marched through the city chanting “peace and bread.”There was also the Bolshevik Revolution. The Bolsheviks were a party dedicated to a violent revolution that would destroy the capitalist system under Lenin’s direction.
  • The Peace Settlement (1919)

    January 1919-final settlement of Great War in Paris, France. Treaty of Versailles consisted of five separate treaties with the defeated nations. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria & Turkey. Germany signed the Treaty on June 28th 1919, but was not happy. The Allies held them responsible for the damages in the war. Germany had to pay all the reparations for all the damage to allied government.
  • A Time of Uncertain Peace (1919 - 1929)

    After WW I there was a time of uncertain peace between 1919 and 1929. The U.S. president, Wilson; recognized that the peace treaties ending WWI was going to cause a new conflict. During this time the Weimar Republic was plagued by problems. The United States & Britain also abandoned France. France then started to look for security, and wanted to get their money from Germany. Germany paid for a while, and then stopped paying later. Great depression had also begun during this time.
  • The Authoritarian & Totalitarian States (1926-1953)

    Fascist Italy-Benito Mussolini, first movement facist. By the end of 1926, Mussolini ruled Italy as Duce II “the leader”. Hitler & Nazi Germany, Hitler joined German workers party one of a number of right wing extreme nationalist parties in Munich. The Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) used his post as party general secretary to gain control of the communist party. Launched his five year plan, transformation of Soviet Union from an agricultural country into industrial.
  • Path to War in Asia (1931-1937)

    Japan seized Manchuria, which had natural resources for Japan. In 1937 there was a war between Chinese and Japanese forces. The Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek refused to give in to Japanese plans. Japanese plans to dominate their Asian neighbors failed.
  • Nazi (1935 - 1945)

    In Germany there was a new order. Nazi propagandists painted images of a new European order based on “equal chances” for all nations and economic community. Hitler only wanted Germans in his empire, and said “Germans can really organize Europe”. The Aryan race became very important to Hitler. Hitler’s ideology was that Jews are trying to destroy the Aryans. This led Hitler to want to get rid of the Jews through mass extermination. This is when the Holocaust started, and death camps opened.
  • The Course of WWII (1939)

    Hitler first attacked Poland, after that Soviet Union attacked Poland. They surrendered Poland in four weeks on September 28th 1939, Germany and Soviet Union officially divided Poland between them. Then Germany attacked France, and surrendered them on June 22nd. At this time Germany took control over Europe. Hitler attacked Britain, but this time Germany lost the battle. Hitler thought if he attacked Soviet Union and defeat them, Britian will also be defeated.
  • Truman Doctrine (1947)

    President Harry Truman of the United States was upset by British weakness and the likelihood of Soviet Union expansion into the Eastern Mediterranean. He responded with the Truman Doctrine in 1947. He requested $400 million in economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey. Truman said that the United States would provide money to countries that claimed they were threatened by Communist expansion. The Truman doctrine stopped the Soviets in Greece, the U.S. keeping Communism out.
  • Korean War (1950-1953)

    Korea had been liberated from the Japanese in 1945 but soon split into two parts. The land north of the 38th parallel became the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea). This area was supported by the Soviet Union. The Republic of Korea (South Korea) received help from the United States. After two more years of fighting, a truce was reached in 1953 leaving Korea divided.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1959 - 1961)

    Confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union reached scary levels during the Cuban Missile Crisis. In 1959, a left-wing revolutionary named Fidel Castro had overthrown the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista and established a Soviet-supported totalitarian regime. In 1961, America invaded Cuba via Bay of Pigs in an attempt to overthrow Castro’s regime; but ended in failure. The next year, the Soviet decided to station nuclear missiles in Cuba. The U.S. wasn’t prepared to counter them.
  • Feminism (1960's)

    Increasingly, women protested that the acquisition of political and legal equality had not brought true equality with men. An important contributor to the growth of the women’s movement in 1960’s was Betty Friedan. .” She published "The Feminist Mystique". She founded the National Organization for Women. The feminist movement that made the addition to the U.S. constitution for an amendment guaranteeing equal rights for women.
  • Vietnam War (1965 - 1975)

    In 1964, under President Lyndon B. Johnson, U.S. troops were sent to Vietnam to keep the Communist regime of the north from uniting the entire country under its control. Even though the U.S. was superior in equipment and firepower, U.S. forces failed to be victorious over the persistence of the North Vietnamese and the Vietcong. Guerilla forces were very effective against American troops. South Vietnam surrendered on April 30, 1975, following the fall of its capital.
  • The Olympic Games (1984 - Current Year)

    The development of Satellite television and various electronics helped to make sports global. When the Olympic Games were revived the original intent was to show how athletic the militants of each country were when faced with obsticals. It was like a trainning exercise to see who the best was and they were given a prize for competing. The prize was in sorts an insentive so more people would try to aim for perfection of the human body.
  • Berlin (1989 - 1990)

    The ongoing oppressiveness of the regime of Erich Honecker led to a flight of refugees and mass demonstration against the regime in the summer and fall of 1989. As a result, on November 4, more than half a million people flooded the streets of East Berlin. The Berlin Wall; became the site of massive celebrations as thousands of people used sledgehammers to tear it down. By December, new political parties had emerged. On March 18, 1990 East Germany had its first free election.
  • Expansion of Mass Culture and Leisure (1900-1989)

    There were theaters, cabaret, cinemas and jazz clubs. There were also technological inventions, such as: radios & movies. There were even professional sporting events for mass audiences that became an important aspect of mass leisure.
  • The U.S. Moves to the Center (1992 - Current Year)

    Welfare programs were created to help aid Americans to help them get jobs. President George W. Bush vowed to wage a lengthy war in Afghanistan on terrorism and worked to create a coalition of nations to assist in getting rid of Al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups. The U.S. finnancial system falls drasticaly in 2008. Obama tries to fix the problems of the world.