Charles Darwin 1809-1882Although it was Darwin, above all others, who first marshaled convincing evidence for biological evolution, earlier scholars had recognized that organisms on Earth had changed systematically over long periods of time. For example, in 1799 an engineer named William Smith reported that, in undisrupted layers of rock, fossils occurred in a definite sequential order, with more modern-appearing ones closer to the top.
Darwin's 5 year VoyageDarwin began developing these ideas as a result of his experiences during a five-year voyage on the British survey vessel H.M.S. Beagle, which sailed around the world on a mapping expedition during the early 1830s (Figure 1). Darwin was on board to work as the ship's naturalist, to record information about the geology, sea life, land animals and plants, and people that the Beagle would discover. Video link
Charles Darwin's LettersOn July 1, 1858, three papers were read by the Linnean Society depicting Darwin's idea that varieties of species have the tendency to depart indefinitely from the original type. Darwin did not accept that evolution would necessarily represent progress or advancement, nor did he believe that evolution would always result in morphological change over time; rather, he knew of the existence of “living fossils,” organisms that had remained unchanged for millions of years.
Charles Darwin's Book PublicationCharles Darwin presented his book, "The Origin of Species", in 1859 to portray to the public the basics of evolution. Darwin founded a new branch of evolutionary science: evolutionary biology. Darwin introduced historicity into science. Evolutionary biology, in contrast with physics and chemistry, is a historical science—the evolutionist attempts to explain events and processes that have already taken place(Mayr, E 2020).