Galileo

By lagosta
  • Feb 15, 1564

    He's born

    He's born
    Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa in the Duchy of Florence, Italy.
  • Jan 1, 1574

    Started His Formal Education

    Started His Formal Education
    In 1574, the family moved to Florence, where Galileo started his formal education at the Camaldolese monastery in Vallombrosa.
  • Entered the University of Pisa

    Entered the University of Pisa
    In 1583, Galileo entered the University of Pisa to study medicine.
  • Left the University

    Left the University
    Galileo left the university in 1585 before earning his degree.
  • He Published The Little Balance

    He Published The Little Balance
    During this time he began his two-decade study on objects in motion and published The Little Balance, describing the hydrostatic principles of weighing small quantities, which brought him some fame.
  • Teaching post at the University of Pisa

    Teaching post at the University of Pisa
    This gained him a teaching post at the University of Pisa, in 1589.
  • Personal Life

    In 1600, Galileo met Marina Gamba, a Venetian woman, who bore him three children out of wedlock: daughters Virginia and Livia, and son Vincenzo. He never married Marina, possibly due to financial worries and possibly fearing his illegitimate children would threaten his social standing. He worried the two girls would never marry well, and when they were older, had them enter a convent. His son’s birth was eventually legitimized and he became a successful musician.
  • The Operations of the Geometrical and Military Compass

    The Operations of the Geometrical and Military Compass
    In 1604, Galileo published The Operations of the Geometrical and Military Compass, revealing his skills with experiments and practical technological applications.
  • Telescope by the dutch

    Telescope by the dutch
    In July 1609, Galileo learned about a simple telescope built by Dutch eyeglass makers, and he soon developed one of his own. In August, he demonstrated it to some Venetian merchants,
  • The Starry Messenger

    The Starry Messenger
    March 1610, he published a small booklet, The Starry Messenger, revealing his discoveries that the moon was not flat and smooth, but a sphere with mountains and craters.
  • Discourse on Bodies in Water

    In 1612, he published his Discourse on Bodies in Water, refuting the Aristotelian explanation of why objects float in water, saying that it wasn’t because of their flat shape, but instead the weight of the object in relation to the water it displaced.
  • Observations of Sunspots

    Observations of Sunspots
    In 1613, he published his observations of sunspots, which further refuted Aristotelian doctrine that the sun was perfect. That same year, Galileo wrote a letter to a student to explain how Copernican theory did not contradict Biblical passages, stating that scripture was written from an earthly perspective and implied that science provided a different, more accurate perspective.
  • The letter was made public

    The letter was made public and Church Inquisition consultants pronounced Copernican theory heretical. In 1616, Galileo was ordered not to “hold, teach, or defend in any manner” the Copernican theory regarding the motion of the earth.
  • Cardinal Maffeo Barberini

    In 1623, a friend of Galileo, Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, was selected as Pope Urban VIII. He allowed Galileo to pursue his work on astronomy and even encouraged him to publish it, on condition it be objective and not advocate Copernican theory.
  • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems

    Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
    In 1632, Galileo published the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, a discussion among three people: one who supports Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the universe, one who argues against it, and one who is impartial.
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    The church reaction

    Church reaction against the book was swift, and Galileo was summoned to Rome. The Inquisition proceedings lasted from September 1632 to July 1633. During most of this time, Galileo was treated with respect and never imprisoned. However, in a final attempt to break him, Galileo was threatened with torture, and he finally admitted he had supported Copernican theory, but privately held that his statements were correct.
  • He Died

    He Died
    He died in Arcetri, Italy, on January 8, 1642.
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    Galileo's Death and Legacy

    Galileo died in Arcetri, near Florence, Italy, on January 8, 1642, after suffering from a fever and heart palpitations. But in time, the Church couldn’t deny the truth in science. In 1758, it lifted the ban on most works supporting Copernican theory, and by 1835 dropped its opposition to heliocentrism altogether.
  • "The Father of Modern Science."

    "The Father of Modern Science."
    In the 20th century, several popes acknowledged the great work of Galileo, and in 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret about how the Galileo affair was handled. Galileo's contribution to our understanding of the universe was significant not only in his discoveries, but in the methods he developed and the use of mathematics to prove them. He played a major role in the scientific revolution and, deservedly so, earned the moniker "The Father of Modern Science."