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Foundations of Special Education

  • American School for the Deaf

    American School for the Deaf
    Primarily known as the American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, this was the first permanent school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the U.S. Thomas Gallaudet and Mason Cogswell directed the school while french teacher Laurent Clerc helped train teachers and teach students sign language. Many of their students became productive deaf citizens and advocated this new style of learning to others. Video
  • Perkins School for the Blind

    Perkins School for the Blind
    Samuel Gridley Howe and John Fisher opened the first school dedicated to educating the blind in Watertown, Massachusetts. The institution wanted to prepare young people to live poised and purposeful lives. Howe taught the students vocational and household skills as well as traditional subject knowledge. The students' used tools such as arithmetic boards, tactile maps, and 3d models. In later years they would introduce the first Braille machine, allowing students to type in Braille.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    This Supreme Court case ruled that racial segregation in public schools was not in fact "Separate-but-equal." Before this date, only some children with disabilities had access to special education programs that were mostly privately owned. After the results of Brown v. Board of Education, parents united to fight laws that would grant their children with disabilities access to public education. Video
  • Elementary & Secondary Education Act

    Elementary & Secondary Education Act
    President and former teacher, Lydon Johnson believed that an equal chance at education meant an equal chance at life. The Public Law 89-10 he signed, assured financial assistance to local education agencies serving areas with concentrations of children from low-income backgrounds to expand and improve their education. Children would be granted free and reduced lunch provisions. It also supported an increase in the number of teachers in low-income areas.
  • Mills v. B.O.E

    Mills v. B.O.E
    This lawsuit was filed on behalf of seven children with different disabilities in the district of Columbia. The board claimed that they did not have sufficient funds to provide special education services and so the students should be transferred or expelled. The court ruled in favor of the children asserting that the exclusion of children with disabilities from public schools is a denial of equal protection and a violation of their rights to free public education.
  • Rehabilitation Act (Section 504)

    Rehabilitation Act (Section 504)
    Law 93-112 prohibits any discrimination against students who have disabilities. The needs of students with disabilities must be met adequately in any program that is federally funded in order to maximize the students' abilities.
  • Education for all Handicapped Act

    Education for all Handicapped Act
    Public Law 94-142 was made in response to children who were excluded entirely from school or had limited access to resources. The state and local agencies have the responsibility to provide a free and appropriate education that emphasizes the needs of all children with disabilities. This act assures the rights of both children and parents/guardians are protected. Public Law 94-142
  • Honig v. Doe

    Honig v. Doe
    17-year-old John Doe was a disabled student with emotional and anger factors who choked another student for taunting him. Doe's actions got him suspended which violated his rights detailed in the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The court affirmed that Doe's services were being violated in which later this supreme court case established the protection and rights to education for emotionally and developmentally disabled students.
  • Technology-Related Assistance Act

    Technology-Related Assistance Act
    The purpose of this act was to provide financial assistance to implement technology-related assistance in programs for students with disabilities. Granting access to technology would allow people with disabilities to have greater control over their lives and allow students to participate and contribute more fully in school programs. Although it was in its' early stages, there were already a number of technology devices that significantly benefited many of all ages.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    This act requires schools to assume greater responsibility for ensuring that students with disabilities have access to general education curriculum which emphasizes their needs. It ensures that educators and parents have the necessary tools to support the student's education by creating proactive plans for the students' (IEP.) Extra help from special education staff will be provided to assist general ed classrooms.
    Public Law 105-17
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Every Student Succeeds Act
    This is the replacement to the No Child Left Behind Act. It gives back control to the states in terms of standardized testing and academic standards which Washington cannot dictate in. This plan requires schools to teach high academic standards that will prepare students to succeed in college and careers. It also assures schools that are struggling to get the right help needed from their districts to get back on track. Parents are also involved in knowing the plans of their school districts.