ENGLISH LITERATURE

  • 673

    Bede

    Bede
    The Venerable Bede, in his monastery at Jarrow, completes his history of the English church and people
  • 800

    Beowulf

    Beowulf
    Beowulf, the first great work of Germanic literature, mingles the legends of Scandinavia with the experience in England of Angles and Saxons
  • 950

    Elder, the Eddas

    Elder, the Eddas
    The material of the Eddas, taking shape in Iceland, derives from earlier sources in Norway, Britain and Burgundy
  • 1300

    Don Scotus

    Don Scotus
    Duns Scotus, known as the Subtle Doctor in medieval times, later provides humanists with the name Dunsman or dunce
  • 1340

    William of Ockham

    William of Ockham
    William of Ockham advocates paring down arguments to their essentials, an approach later known as Ockham's Razor
  • 1367

    Piers Plowman

    Piers Plowman
    A narrator who calls himself Will, and whose name may be Langland, begins the epic poem of Piers Plowman
  • 1375

    Sir Gawain

    Sir Gawain
    The courtly poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight tells of a mysterious visitor to the round table of King Arthur
  • 1385

    Chaucer

    Chaucer
    Chaucer completes Troilus and Criseyde, his long poem about a legendary love affair in ancient Troy
  • 1469

    Thomas Malory

    Thomas Malory
    Thomas Malory, in gaol somewhere in England, compiles Morte d'Arthur – an English account of the French tales of King Arthur
  • 1510

    Christian humanism

    Christian humanism
    Erasmus and Thomas More take the northern Renaissance in the direction of Christian humanism
  • 1524

    William Tyndale

    William Tyndale
    William Tyndale studies in the university at Wittenberg and plans to translate the Bible into English
  • 1549

    English prayer book

    English prayer book
    The first version of the English prayer book, or Book of Common Prayer, is published with text by Thomas Cranmer
  • 1567

    New testament

    New testament
    The Book of Common Prayer and the New Testament are published in Welsh, to be followed by the complete Bible in 1588
  • Marlowe

    Marlowe
    Marlowe's first play, Tamburlaine the Great, introduces the swaggering blank verse of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama
  • Shakespeare - Richard III

    Shakespeare - Richard III
    After tentative beginnings in the three parts of Henry VI, Shakespeare achieves his first masterpiece on stage with Richard III
  • Hamlet

    Hamlet
    Shakespeare's central character in Hamlet expresses both the ideals of the Renaissance and the disillusion of a less confident age
  • Bible

    Bible
    James I commissions the Authorized version of the Bible, which is completed by forty-seven scholars in seven years
  • Ben Jonson

    Ben Jonson
    Ben Jonson writes The Masque of Blackness, the first of his many masques for the court of James I
  • Sonnets

    Sonnets
    Shakespeare's sonnets, written ten years previously, are published
  • John Smith

    John Smith
    John Smith publishes A Description of New England, an account of his exploration of the region in 1614
  • Anne Bradstreet

    Anne Bradstreet
    The poems of Massachusetts author Anne Bradstreet are published in London under the title The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America
  • Izaak Walton

    Izaak Walton
    Devoted fisherman Izaak Walton publishes the classic work on the subject, The Compleat Angler
  • Pilgrim´s Progress

    Pilgrim´s Progress
    Part I of The Pilgrim's Progress, written during John Bunyan's two spells in Bedford Gaol, is published and is immediately popular
  • Aphra Behn

    Aphra Behn
    Aphra Behn's novel Oroonoko makes an early protest against the inhumanity of the African slave trade
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    John Locke publishes his Essay concerning Human Understanding, arguing that all knowledge is based on experience
  • Newspaper

    Newspaper
    The Tatler launches a new style of journalism in Britain's coffee houses, followed two years later by the Spectator
  • George Berkeley

    George Berkeley
    25-year-old George Berkeley attacks Locke in his Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
  • Alexander Pope

    Alexander Pope
    Alexander Pope's Rape of the Lock introduces a delicate vein of mock-heroic in English poetry
  • First English novel

    First English novel
    Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, with its detailed realism, can be seen as the first English novel
  • Jonathan Swift

    Jonathan Swift
    Jonathan Swift sends his hero on a series of bitterly satirical travels in Gulliver's Travels
  • David Hume

    David Hume
    David Hume publishes his Treatise of Human Nature, in which he applies to the human mind the principles of experimental science
  • The longest novel

    The longest novel
    Samuel Richardson's Clarissa begins the correspondence that grows into the longest novel in the English language
  • Dictionary

    Dictionary
    Samuel Johnson publishes his magisterial Dictionary of the English Language
  • Laurence Sterne

    Laurence Sterne
    Laurence Sterne publishes the first two volumes of Tristram Shandy, beginning with the scene at the hero's conception
  • Horace Walpole

    Horace Walpole
    English author Horace Walpole provides an early taste of Gothic thrills in his novel Castle of Otranto
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica

    Encyclopaedia Britannica
    A Society of Gentlemen in Scotland begins publication of the immensely successful Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Edward Gibbon

    Edward Gibbon
    English historian Edward Gibbon publishes the first volume of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Scottish economist Adam Smith analyzes the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations
  • William Blake

    William Blake
    William Blake publishes Songs of Innocence, a volume of his poems with every page etched and illustrated by himself
  • Edmund Burke

    Edmund Burke
    Anglo-Irish politician Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on the Revolution in France, a blistering attack on recent events across the Channel
  • Rights of man

    Rights of man
    Thomas Paine publishes the first part of The Rights of Man, his reply to Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France
  • Rights of woman

    Rights of woman
    English author Mary Wollstonecraft publishes a passionately feminist work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
  • Age of reason

    Age of reason
    Thomas Paine publishes his completed Age of Reason, an attack on conventional Christianity
  • Wordsworth and Coleridge

    Wordsworth and Coleridge
    English poets Wordsworth and Coleridge jointly publish Lyrical Ballads, a milestone in the Romantic movement
  • Walter Scott

    Walter Scott
    Walter Scott publishes The Lay of the Last Minstrel, the long romantic poem that first brings him fame
  • Jane Austen

    Jane Austen
    English author Jane Austen publishes her first work in print, Sense and Sensibility, at her own expense
  • Frankenstein

    Frankenstein
    Mary Shelley publishes Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus, a Gothic tale about giving life to an artificial man. Two of Jane Austen's novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, are published in the year after her death.
  • Lord Byron

    Lord Byron
    Byron begins publication in parts of his longest poem, Don Juan an epic satirical comment on contemporary life
  • Charles Dickens

    Charles Dickens
    24-year-old Charles Dickens begins monthly publication of his first work of fiction, Pickwick Papers (published in book form in 1837)
  • Benjamin Disraeli

    Benjamin Disraeli
    In his novel Coningsby Benjamin Disraeli develops the theme of Conservatism uniting 'two nations', the rich and the poor
  • Friederick Engles

    Friederick Engles
    Friedrich Engels, after running a textile factory in Manchester, publishes The Condition of the Working Class in England
  • David Copperfield

    David Copperfield
    Charles Dickens begins the publication in monthly numbers of David Copperfield, his own favourite among his novels
  • Alfred Tennyson

    Alfred Tennyson
    Alfred Tennyson's elegy for a friend, In Memoriam, captures perfectly the Victorian mood of heightened sensibility
  • Dictionary of synonyms

    Dictionary of synonyms
    London physician Peter Mark Roget publishes his dictionary of synonyms, the Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases
  • Theorigin of species

    Theorigin of species
    Charles Darwin puts forward the theory of evolution in On the Origin of Species, the result of 20 years' research
    In On Liberty John Stuart Mill makes the classic liberal case for the priority of the freedom of the individual
    Tennyson publishes the first part of Idylls of the King, a series of linked poems about Britain's mythical king Arthur
    Charles Dickens publishes his French Revolution novel, A Tale of Two Cities
  • Victorian melodramas

    Victorian melodramas
    Mrs Henry Wood publishes her first novel, East Lynne, which becomes the basis of the most popular of all Victorian melodramas
  • Lewis Carroll

    Lewis Carroll
    Oxford mathematician Lewis Carroll tells 10-year-old Alice Liddell, on a boat trip, a story about her own adventures in Wonderland
  • Matthew Arnold

    Matthew Arnold
    English author Matthew Arnold publishes Culture and Anarchy, an influential collection of essays about contemporary society
  • Sprung rhythm

    Sprung rhythm
    English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins develops a new verse form that he calls 'sprung rhythm'
  • Aesthetic movement

    Aesthetic movement
    The Aesthetic Movement and 'art for art's sake', attitudes personified above all by Whistler and Wilde, are widely mocked and satirized in Britain
  • The A volume

    The A volume
    Oxford University Press publishes the A volume of its New English Dictionary, which will take 37 years to reach Z
  • Richard Burton

    Richard Burton
    Explorer and orientalist Richard Burton begins publication of his multi-volume translation from the Arabic of The Arabian Nights
  • Robert Louis Stevenson

    Robert Louis Stevenson
    Robert Louis Stevenson introduces a dual personality in his novel The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
  • Sherlock Holmes

    Sherlock Holmes
    Sherlock Holmes features in Conan Doyle's first novel, A Study in Scarlet
  • Socialism influency

    Socialism influency
    23-year-old Irish author William Butler Yeats publishes his first volume of poems, The Wanderings of Oisin The Fabian Society publishes Essays in Socialisman influential volume of essays edited by Bernard Shaw
  • James Frazer

    James Frazer
    Scottish anthropologist James Frazer publishes The Golden Bough, a massive compilation of contemporary knowledge about ritual and religious custom
  • Oscar Wilde

    Oscar Wilde
    A Gaelic pressure group, the Highland Association, is founded to preserve the indigenous poetry and music of Scotland Oscar Wilde publishes his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray in which the ever-youthful hero's portrait grows old and ugly Thomas Hardy publishes his novel Tess of the Durbervilles, with a dramatic finale at Stonehenge
  • W,B, Yeats

    W,B, Yeats
    Oscar Wilde's comedy Lady Windermere's Fan is a great success with audiences in London
    W.B. Yeats founds the National Literary Society in Dublin, with Douglas Hyde as its first president.
    W.B. Yeats publishes a short play The Countess Cathleen, his first contribution to Irish poetic drama
    Bernard Shaw's first play, Widowers' Houses, deals with the serious social problem of slum landlords
    Mr Pooter is the suburban anti-hero of the The Diary of a Nobody, by George and Weedon Grossmith
  • Rudyard Kipling

    Rudyard Kipling
    Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book surrounds the child Mowgli with a collection of vivid animal guardians
  • H.G. Wells

    H.G. Wells
    Oscar Wilde's most brilliant comedy, The Importance of Being Earnest is performed in London's St. James Theatre Oscar Wilde loses a libel case that he has brought against the marquess of Queensberry for describing him as a sodomite Oscar Wilde is sent to Reading Gaol to serve a two-year sentence with hard labour after being convicted of homosexuality H.G. Wells publishes The Time Machine, a story about a Time Traveller whose first stop on his journey is the year 802701
  • Bram Stoker

    Bram Stoker
    Somerset Maugham publishes his first novel, Liza of Lambeth, based on the London life he has observed as a medical student English author Bram Stoker publishes Dracula, his gothic tale of vampirism in Transylvania
  • Edith Nesbit

    Edith Nesbit
    E. Nesbit publishes The Story of the Treasure Seekers, introducing the Bastable family who feature in several of her books for children
  • Just So Stories for Little Children

    Just So Stories for Little Children
    Rudyard Kipling publishes his Just So Stories for Little Children The play Cathleen ni Houlihan, by W.B. Yeats and Lady Gregory, fosters Irish nationalism. John Masefield's poem 'Sea Fever' is published in Salt-Water Ballads Conan Doyle's The Hound of the Baskervilles begins publication in serial form. Henry James publishes the first of his three last novels, The Wings of the Dove Joseph Conrad publishes a collection of stories based partly on his own journey up the Congo
  • G.E. Moore

    G.E. Moore
    Erskine Childers has a best-seller in The Riddle of the Sands, a thriller about a planned German invasion of Britain Henry James publishes The Ambassadors, the second of his three last novels written in rapid succession British philosopher G.E. Moore publishes Principia Ethica, an attempt to apply logic to ethics
  • J.M. Barrie

    J.M. Barrie
    Joseph Conrad publishes his novel Nostromo, about a revolution in South America and a fatal horde of silver Henry James publishes his last completed novel, The Golden Bowl J.M Barrie's play for children Peter Pan, or the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up has its premiere in London Under the pseudonym Saki, H.H. Munro publishes Reginald, his first volume of short stories
  • The Bloomsbury group

    The Bloomsbury group
    The Bloomsbury Group gathers for informal evenings at the family home of Virginia and Vanessa Stephens (later Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell) Oscar Wilde's De Profundis, a letter of recrimination written in Reading Gaol to Lord Alfred Douglas, is published posthumously H.G. Wells publishes Kipps: the story of a simple soul, a comic novel about a bumbling draper's assistant Sir Percy Blakeney rescues aristocrats from the guillotine in Baroness Orczy's The Scarlet Pimpernel
  • John Galsworthy

    John Galsworthy
    The first volume of the inexpensive Everyman's Library is issued by Joseph Dent, a London publisher E. Nesbit publishes The Railway Children, the most successful of her books featuring the Bastable family John Galsworthy publishes The Man of Property, the first of his novels chronicling the family of Soames Forsyte
  • Ann Veronica

    Ann Veronica
    The heroine of H.G. Wells' novel Ann Veronica is a determined example of the New Woman
  • John Masefield

    John Masefield
    In his poem Cargoes, John Masefield compares a 'dirty British coaster' with two romantic boats from the past John Buchan publishes Prester John, the first of his adventure stories H.G. Wells publishes The History of Mr Polly, a novel about an escape from drab everyday existence Rudyard Kipling publishes If, which rapidly becomes his most popular poem among the British E.M. Forster publishes Howard's End, his novel about the Schlegel sisters and the Wilcox family
  • Max Beerbohm

    Max Beerbohm
    D.H. Lawrence's career as a writer is launched with the publication of his first novel, The White Peacock Rupert Brooke publishes Poems, the only collection to appear before his early death in World War I In a German Pension is New Zealand author Katherine Mansfield's first collection of stories Max Beerbohm publishes his novel Zuleika Dobson, in which the beauty of his heroine causes havoc among the students at Oxford
  • Prinicipia Mathemathica

    Prinicipia Mathemathica
    The first issue of the New Statesman is published by Beatrice and Sidney Webb Compton Mackenzie publishes the first volume of his autobiographical novel Sinister Street Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell complete a work of mathematical logic, Principia Mathematica D.H. Lawrence publishes a semi-autobiographical novel about the Morel family, Sons and Lovers
  • The Times Literary Supplemen

    The Times Literary Supplemen
    James Joyce's novel Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man begins serial publication in a London journal, The Egoist James Joyce's Dubliners, a collection of short stories, is published The Times Literary Supplement is published in London as an independent paper, separate from The Times Robert Tressell's Ragged Trousered Philanthropists is published posthumously in an abbreviated version
  • Virginia Wolf

    Virginia Wolf
    Somerset Maugham publishes his semi-autobiographical novel Of Human Bondage The English writer Virginia Woolf publishes her first novel, The Voyage Out D.H. Lawrence's novel about the Brangwen family, The Rainbow, is seized by the police as an obscene work Secret agent Richard Hannay makes his first appearance in John Buchan's Thirty-Nine Steps Rupert Brooke's 1914 and Other Poems is published a few months after his death in Greece
  • Agatha Christie

    Agatha Christie
    Sapper's patriotic hero makes his first appearance, taking on the villainous Carl Peterson in Bull-dog Drummond D.H. Lawrence's Women in Love, a continuation of the family story in The Rainbow, is published first in the USA The Belgian detective Hercule Poirot features in Agatha Christie's first book, The Mysterious Affair at Styles
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein

    Ludwig Wittgenstein
    Somerset Maugham's short story 'Rain' (in his collection The Trembling of a Leaf) introduces the lively American prostitute Sadie Thompson Ludwig Wittgenstein publishes his influential study of the philosophy of logic, Tractatus Logico Philosophicus
  • E.M. Forster

    E.M. Forster
    E.M. Forster's novel A Passage to India builds on cultural misconceptions between the British and Indian communities Christopher Robin features for the first time in A.A. Milne's When We Were Very Young
  • Mrs Dalloway

    Mrs Dalloway
    English writer Ivy Compton-Burnett finds her characteristic voice in her second novel, Pastors and Masters Virginia Woolf publishes her novel Mrs Dalloway, in which the action is limited to a single day
  • A.A. Milne

    A.A. Milne
    Patrick Abercrombie publishes The Preservation of Rural England, calling for rural planning to prevent the encroachment of towns T.E. Lawrence publishes privately his autobiographical Seven Pillars of Wisdom, describing his part in the Arab uprising Pooh, Piglet, Eeyore and the others make their first appearance in A.A. Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh Hugh MacDiarmid writes his long poem A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle in a revived version of the Lallans dialect of the Scottish borders
  • Henry Williamson

    Henry Williamson
    Henry Williamson wins a wide readership with Tarka the Otter, a realistic story of the life and death of an otter in Devon Anglo-Irish author Elizabeth Bowen publishes her first novel, The Hotel Virginia Woolf uses a Hebridean holiday as the setting for her narrative in To The Lighthouse
  • Radclyffe Hall

    Radclyffe Hall
    Caribbean-born author Jean Rhys publishes her first novel, Postures, based on her affair with the writer Ford Madox Ford Siegfried Sassoon publishes Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man. Set in a World War I trench, the play Journey's End reflects the wartime experiences of its British author, R.C. Sherriff Evelyn Waugh succeeds with a comic first novel, Decline and Fall Radclyffe Hall's novel The Well of Loneliness is the first to deal openly with a lesbian subject
  • Memorable History of England

    Memorable History of England
    English author W.H. Auden's first collection of poetry is published with the title Poems Swallows and Amazons is the first of Arthur Ransome's adventure stories for children. Agatha Christie's Miss Marple makes her first appearance, in Murder at the Vicarage A spoof history text book, 1066 and all that, is justifiably described by its authors, Walter Sellar and Robert Yeatman, as a Memorable History of England
  • Logical positivism

    Logical positivism
    John Maynard Keynes defines his economics in The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money In Language, Truth and Logic 26-year-old A.J. Ayer produces a classic exposition of Logical Positivism Terence Rattigan's first play, French without Tears, is performed in London
  • Enid Blyton

    Enid Blyton
    English children's author Enid Blyton introduces the Famous Five in Five on a Treasure Island
  • Nancy Mitford

    Nancy Mitford
    English author Nancy Mitford has her first success with the novel The Pursuit of Love Evelyn Waugh publishes Brideshead Revisited, a novel about a rich Catholic family in England between the wars In George Orwell's fable Animal Farm a ruthless pig, Napoleon, controls the farmyard using the techniques of Stalin
  • Mervyn Peake

    Mervyn Peake
    Titus Groan begins British author Mervyn Peake's trilogy of gothic novels
  • J.B. Priestley

    J.B. Priestley
    English author and alcoholic Malcolm Lowry publishes an autobiographical novel, Under the Volcano J.B. Priestley challenges audiences with An Inspector Calls, a play in which moral guilt spreads like an infection
  • c. s. Lewis

    c. s. Lewis
    C.S. Lewis gives the first glimpse of Narnia in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe British author Doris Lessing publishes her first novel, The Grass is Singing
  • Nikolaus Pevsner

    Nikolaus Pevsner
    British author John Wyndham creates a dark fantasy in his novel The Day of the Triffids A Question of Upbringing begins Anthony Powell's 'A Dance to the Music of Time' British art historian Nikolaus Pevsner undertakes a massive task, a county-by-county description of The Buildings of England
  • Angry Young Men

    Angry Young Men
    Kingsley Amis and other young writers in Britain become known as Angry Young Men Graham Greene's novel The Quiet American is set in contemporary Vietnam and foresees troubles ahead English poet Philip Larkin finds his distinctive voice in his collection The Less Deceived British philologist J.R.R. Tolkien publishes the third and final volume of his epic fantasy The Lord of the Rings
  • Ian Fleming

     Ian Fleming
    English author L.P. Hartley sets his novel The Go-Between in the summer of 1900 James Bond, agent 007, has a licence to kill in Ian Fleming's first novel, Casino Royale
  • Stevie Smith

    Stevie Smith
    The Hawk in the Rain is English author Ted Hughes' first volume of poems The publication of the novel Justine launches Lawrence Durrell's Alexandria Quartet English author John Braine publishes his first novel, Room at the Top English author Stevie Smith publishes her collection of poems Not Waving but Drowning Laurence Olivier brings the music-hall artist Archie Rice vibrantly to life in John Osborne's The Entertainer
  • Winston Churchill

    Winston Churchill
    Dylan Thomas's 'play for voices', Under Milk Wood, is broadcast on BBC radio, with Richard Burton as narrator Politician and author Winston Churchill completes his six-volume history The Second World War Anglo-Irish novelist Iris Murdoch publishes her first novel, Under the Net English author Kingsley Amis's first novel, Lucky Jim, strikes an anti-establishment chord William Golding gives a chilling account of schoolboy savagery in his first novel, Lord of the Flies
  • Lady Chatterley's Lover

     Lady Chatterley's Lover
    English poet John Betjeman publishes his long autobiographical poem Summoned by Bells Paul Scofield plays Thomas More in Robert Bolt's A Man for All Seasons Penguin Books are prosecuted for obscenity for publishing D.H. Lawrence's novel Lady Chatterley's Lover, and are acquitted
  • Doris Lessing

     Doris Lessing
    Benjamin Britten's War Requiem, setting poems by Wilfred Owen, is first performed in the rebuilt Coventry Cathedral British author Doris Lessing publishes an influential feminist novel, The Golden Notebook British author P.D. James's first novel, Cover Her Face, introduces her poet detective Adam Dalgleish Anthony Burgess publishes A Clockwork Orange, a novel depicting a disturbing and violent near-future
  • A.S. Byatt

    A.S. Byatt
    Roald Dahl publishes a fantasy treat for a starving child, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory English author A.S. Byatt publishes her first novel, Shadow of a Sun
  • Paul Scott

    Paul Scott
    English novelist Paul Scott publishes The Jewel in the Crown, the first volume in his 'Raj Quartet' Irish poet Seamus Heaney wins critical acclaim for Death of a Naturalist, his first volume containing more than a few poems After a long period of obscurity, Wide Sargasso Sea brings novelist Jean Rhys back into the literary limelight Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, by Tom Stoppard, is produced at the Edinburgh Festival
  • Angela Carter

    Angela Carter
    English author Angela Carter wins recognition with her quirky second novel, The Magic Toyshop English playwright Alan Ayckbourn has his first success with Relatively Speaking Three young Liverpool poets publish a shared anthology under the title The Mersey Sound A Day in the Death of Joe Egg, by English dramatist Peter Nichols, has its premiere in London
  • Ernst Friedrich Schumacher

    Ernst Friedrich Schumacher
    British economist Ernst Friedrich Schumacher publishes an influential economic tract, Small is Beautiful Martin Amis, son of Kingsley Amis, publishes his first novel, The Rachel Papers
  • Iris Murdoch

    Iris Murdoch
    Iris Murdoch publishes The Sea, the Sea, and wins the 1978 Booker Prize English author Andrew Motion publishes his first collection of poems, The Pleasure Steamers British author Ian McEwan publishes his first novel, The Cement Garden
  • Salman Rushdie

    Salman Rushdie
    War Music is the first instalment of Christopher Logue's version of the Iliad Salman Rushdie's novel Midnight's Children uses the moment of India's independence to launch an adventure in magic realism English author Anita Brookner publishes her first novel, A Start in Life
  • Michael Frayn

    Michael Frayn
    Michael Frayn's farce Noises Off opens in London's West end
  • Nicholas Kaldor

    Nicholas Kaldor
    British economist Nicholas Kaldor attacks monetarism in The Economic Consequences of Mrs Thatcher Ronald Harwood's play The Dresser is partly inspired by the British actor Donald Wolfit
  • Benjamin Zephaniah

    Benjamin Zephaniah
    British Rasta poet Benjamin Zephaniah publishes his second collection as The Dread Affair
  • Partingtime Hall

    Partingtime Hall
    English poets John Fuller and James Fenton collaborate in a volume of satirical poems, Partingtime Hall Talking Heads, a series of dramatic monologues by English author Alan Bennett, is broadcast on British TV
  • Stephen Hawking

    Stephen Hawking
    Ayatollah Khomeini declares a fatwa against Salman Rushdie for his Satanic Verses British physicist Stephen Hawking explains the cosmos for the general reader in A Brief History of Time: from the Big Bang to Black Holes
  • Racing Demon

    Racing Demon
    Racing Demon launches a trilogy on the British establishment by English playwright David Hare
  • Pat Barker

    Pat Barker
    Alan Bennett's play The Madness of George III is performed at the National Theatre in London Regeneration is the first volume of English author Pat Barker's trilogy of novels set during World War I
  • Thom Gunn

    Thom Gunn
    English poet Thom Gunn's The Man with Night Sweats deals openly with AIDS
  • Irvine Welsh

    Irvine Welsh
    English novelist Sebastian Faulks publishes Birdsong, set partly in the trenches of World War I Vikram Seth publishes his novel A Suitable Boy, a family saga in post-independence India Scottish author Irvine Welsh publishes his first novel, Trainspotting
  • Ted Hughes

     Ted Hughes
    The poems forming Ted Hughes's Birthday Letters describe his relationship with Sylvia Plath A schoolboy wizard performs his first tricks in J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
  • Michael Frayn

    Michael Frayn
    Michael Frayn's play Copenhagen dramatizes the visit of Werner Heisenberg to Niels Bohr in wartime Denmark
  • Philip Pullman

    Philip Pullman
    The Amber Spyglass completes Philip Pullman's trilogy, His Dark Materials