• 450


  • Period: 450 to 1066

    Old English

    The first literature of the Anglo-Saxons was poetry rather than prose. Because f the rhythm, poetry was easier to remember than prose. It was not written but recited or sung and passed down by word of mouth. The main topics were: Love or freedom, responsiveness to nature, strong religious convictions, reverence for womanhood, devotion to glory as of the ruling motive in every warrior’s life. The Anglo-Saxon poet was called scop, who wandered from place to place composing their poems.
  • 500

    Beowulf (Anonym)

    Beowulf (Anonym)
  • 658


    Caedmon Hymn
  • 900


    These poems are The Fates of the Apostles,
    Juliana, Elene, and Christ II
  • Period: 1066 to 1500

    Middle English

    The medieval English started when William the Conqueror invaded England from Normandy (France) in 1066. Literature written in English was found just 100 years after the Norman Invasion, Latin was the common language to write, as well French was also used by the aristocracy. The literature became refined and characterized by an air of courtliness, sentiment, and ornateness. The main literary genres were Romance (Arthur and Sir Gawain), Lyric, and Drama.
  • 1387


    The Canterbury Tales.
  • 1483

    Robert Henryson

    Robert Henryson
    Morall Fabillis
  • 1485

    Thomas Malory

    Thomas Malory
    Le Morte d'Arthur
  • Period: 1500 to


    This period was subdivided into four: Elizabethan Age, The Jacobean Age, The Caroline Age, and The Commonwealth Period
  • Period: 1500 to

    Elizabethan Age

    The Elizabethan Age, England experienced a revived interest in Greek and Roman literature, Bible became available to the people. Translations, Greek, Latin, writers flooded the literary market. The Italian sonnet was introduced to England by Wyatt, and also Lyric Poetry. The Romantic allegory by Edmund Spencer and the first piece of literary criticism were written. The Drama reached its Zenith, and became more secular than religious being William Shakespeare the most important ever.
  • Christopher Marlowe

    Christopher Marlowe
  • William Shakespeare

    William Shakespeare
    Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth.
  • Edmund Spenser

    Edmund Spenser
    The Faerie Queene.
  • Francis Bacon

    Francis Bacon
    Essays, The Advancement and Proficience of Learning Divine and Human (1605)
  • Period: to

    The Jacobean Age

    The Jacobean Age is named after the reign of James I. The King James translation of the Bible also appeared during the Jacobean Age. During his age, it was the development of the extravagant courtly entertainment known as the masque, which reached its literary peak. In prose, Francis Bacon and Robert Burton were among the writers who displayed a new toughness and flexibility of style.
  • Ben Jonson

    Ben Jonson
    The Alchemist.
  • John Donne

    John Donne
    Devotions upon Emergent Occasions
  • Period: to

    The Caroline Age

    The Caroline Age covers the reign of Charles I (“Carolus”). The Caroline age is named after Charles I (1625-1649). Caroline is an adjective of Carolus, the Latin word for Charles. The age of Caroline is an age of poetry of three kinds or schools: Metaphysical, Cavalier, and Puritan schools of poetry. Let‘s see the characteristics of the Caroline Age.
  • Robert Burton

    Robert Burton
    The Anatomy of Melancholy.
  • George Herbert

    George Herbert
    The Temple, Sacred Poems, and Private Ejaculations.
  • Period: to

    The Commonwealth Period

    During the seventeenth century, the age of puritans, people who believed that Christians should live a pure and holy life, gained tremendous political, ecclesiastical, and social power. The Masterpieces during this term were produced by John Milton. Besides puritans other writers were included: Metaphysical poets, their topics were pleasures of this world, and women love. The prose of the period elevated particularly argument and controversy in government, philosophical and religious subjects.
  • Thomas Hobbes

    Thomas Hobbes
    Leviathan. (The Caroline Age)
  • Period: to


    This period is divided into three moments: The Restoration, The Augustan Age, The Age of Sensibility.
  • Period: to

    The Restoration

    The Restoration writers were influentied by the French literature of the court of Louis XIV.The subjects appealed to the cold intellect and were the most presented in satirical, didactic, and argumentative manner. “The last resort a man has recourse to in the conduct of himself is his understanding” Locke. This declaration embodies a tendency of the age.
  • John Milton

    John Milton
    Paradise Lost. (The Caroline Age)
  • John Dryden

    John Dryden
    The Tempest.
  • William Congreve

    William Congreve
    Love for Love.
  • Period: to

    The Augustan Age

    This period is related to the reign of Queen Anne and King George. It was a literary epoch that let the development of the novel, produced an explosion of satire, the drama became melodrama, and poetry was about personal reflection. Writings on Phylosophy, economics, and science gave capitalism the basis for its foundational and development.
  • Daniel Defoe

    Daniel Defoe
    Robinson Crusoe. 1
  • Jonathan Swift

    Jonathan Swift
    Gulliver's Travels.
  • Period: to

    The Age of Sensibility.

    The Age of Sensibility (sometimes referred to as the Age of Johnson) was the time of Ideas such as neoclassicism, a critical and literary mode, and the Enlightenment, a particular worldview shared by many intellectuals, were championed during this age. Novelists to explore include.
  • Samuel Butler

    Samuel Butler
    "Hudibras" (The Restoration)
  • Samuel Johnson

    Samuel Johnson
    The Patriot.
  • Thomas Percy

    Thomas Percy
    The Reliques of Ancient English Poetry.
  • Period: to


    The Romantic Age began as a deliberate movement in 1798 with the publication of Lyric Ballads. Poets turned away the timeworn tradition of using nobility for their characters and turned to the common people and the simple things of field, home, and daily life. The Bible appeared again to refining and purifying the thoughts, giving people love for nature as the creation of God. The view of man was one of great respect for the individual and his liberty and strong faith in the common man.
  • Wordsworth

    Lyrical Ballads.
  • Jane Austen

    Jane Austen
    Pride and Prejudice.
  • Lord Byron

    Lord Byron
  • Mary Shelley

    Mary Shelley
    Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.
  • Period: to


    Victorian literature reflects all the crosscurrents of the era. There was an emphasis on realism, it was truthfulness in reflecting the practical problems and issues of daily life. It also reflects the moral earnestness of the time. Writers were moral teachers, presented love, truth, and brotherhood. It was an age of prose where magazines and newspapers flourished. Victorian poets were more concerned with contemporary issues of the society, it had a message as well as song.
  • Charles Dickens

    Charles Dickens
    Oliver Twist
  • Thomas Carlyle

    Thomas Carlyle
    Latter-Day Pamphlets
  • Elizabeth Barrett

    Elizabeth Barrett
    Two Poems: "A Plea for the Ragged Schools of London" and "The Twins".
  • Rudyard Kipling

    Rudyard Kipling
    The Jungle Book. (Edwardian)
  • Period: to


    Edwardian literature was more intense, social, and political. Novels started a new style of writing. The questions about the order in society, political structures, institutions, and female emancipation dominated this age.
  • George Bernard Shaw

    George Bernard Shaw
    Man and Superman.
  • Alfred Noyes

    Alfred Noyes
    Walking Shadow.
  • H.G. Wells

    H.G. Wells
    The War in the Air.
  • Period: to


    The Georgian era is featured as a fictional time, in which long prose and satirical in nature were some of the issues. Novels expressed societal stigmas, using humor and hard-hitting messages.
  • James Joyce

    James Joyce
  • Period: to


    The literature of the 20th century was characterized by realism. Writers dwelt on cruel, harsh realities of life which they experienced during the pre-war and war years. Literature was greatly influenced by psychological studies. New styles and techniques emerged in the literature as imagism, surrealism, and existentialism. Some topics were social protest and ridicule of society. It was also called the Age of Anxiety. The drama was affected by political decisions generating new conceptions.
  • John Masefield

    John Masefield
    Sard Harker (Heinemann)
  • Samuel Beckett

    Samuel Beckett
    Echo's Bones and Other Precipitates.
  • Aldous Huxley

    Aldous Huxley
    The Perennial Philosophy.
  • Period: to


    Postmodernism expresses a shift on topics as the dehumanization of the post-second world war and the era of the onslaught of consumer capitalism. Postmodernism shares many features of modernism but mixes low and high art, past and future conceptions, one and another genre. It uses many stylistic resources such as parody, pastiche, fragmented think-way, ambiguity, and multiple interpretations. As well it considers fragmentation and disorientation as the only possible way of existence.
  • Graham Greene

    Graham Greene
    The Third Man.
  • Anthony Burgess

    Anthony Burgess
    Time for a Tiger.
  • Ralph Hodgson.

    Ralph Hodgson.
    The Skylark
  • Joseph Heller

    Joseph Heller
  • John Fowles

    John Fowles
    Wormholes - Essays and Occasional Writings
  • Penelope M. Lively

    Penelope M. Lively
    Family Album.