Mar 4, 1394
Prince HenrySent Portuguese ships to explore the west coast of Africa. He had a motivation "the need to know"
His burning passion launched the era of European expansion as well as funding creation of navel technology (compas)
Oct 31, 1450
Christopher ColumbusPlan was to sail west across the atlantic to find gold
Plan was accepted Aug. 3,1492
He landed in the Bahamas, bringing disease, killing natives. Mission brought together the americans, Europe, and African worlds.
Jan 1, 1492
Columbian Exchange*DAY AND MONTH UNKNOWN*
voyage of Columbus and others lead to an introduction of plants and animals; to Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Items brought from Eastern Hemisphere to western hemisphere.
aka Triangular trade
Jan 1, 1580
John Smith*NO EXACT DAY*
Helped hungry fight against the Turks, in return he became a knight.
Because of him, production of the profitable crop of tobacco, Englands small, North American settlement survied
TOBACCO IS NOT A FOOD SUBSTANCE
Joint-stock companies*NO SPECIFIC TIME* the buisness of colonization were funded by the spanish rulers, but England colonies were funded by joint-stock companies; which allowed several investors to pool their wealth in support of a colony that'd produce profit.
House of Burgesses*NO EXACT DAY*
The first representative body in colonial America
the house claimed authority to raise taxes and make laws but can be vetod by english governor
Only white male landowners can vote
contributed to the development of representative government in english america
Enlightment*DAY AND MONTH UNKNOWN*
idea that traveled from Europe to colonies, and spread quickly by books and pamphlets.
Ideas about nature
influenced by Nicolaus Cupernious, Galileo Galilei, and Sie Issac Newton
william Pennjoined the Quakers
Had dream of establishing a haven for Quakers in America
Wanted to govern by: equality, cooperation, and religious tolerance
Religious tolarance attracted many multiple faiths/beliefs
Bacon's Rebellion*NO EXACT DAY OR MONTH*
Gathered an army to fight native americans on the Virginia frontier -- Declared by Governor Berkely illegal
Fought for lack of representation in the house, ended up taxed/governed without farmers concent.
Iroquois Leaguean oral agreement
a confederation, a loose group of governments working together. Their purpose was to handle conflicts peacefully. Consists of 5 indian people: Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas
Alexander HamiltonSecretary of treasury
Had faith in the common citizen and sided with the interests of upper-class men
founder of "Hamiltons Economic Plan"
Wanted a strong, central government, commerece, and industry
He was a federalist
Articles of the ConfederationState governments were supreme (somewhat), while the national government was supreme in other matters.
confederation = alliance
gave national governent the power to declare war, make peace, and sign treaties. They could also borrow money, set standards for coins, weights, and measurements; establish a postal service, and deal with Native Americans.
Creatred no department to carry out and enfore the acts of congress/national courts to interpret meaning of laws
Shays's RebellionTHE DATE OF THIS EVENT IS UNKNOWN, all historians know is it's 1786 - 1787
a farmers protest which caused panic and dismay throughtout the nation.
Shay would demanded the courts be closed so they would not lose their farms to creditors.
army of 1200
risked the damage of private properties and the nations reputation
Tax on Wiski
Three-fifths Compromise3/5 of a states slavers count towards the states population
Gave rise to a political issue but not economical
Northwest Ordiance of 1787Passed requirements for the admission of new states, and provided a system for dividing land into territories.
1. congress will appoint a territorial governor and judges
2. territory has 5,000 voting residents = settlers able to write a temorary constitution and elect their own government
3. total population of region is 60,000 free inhabitants = settles able to write a state constitution, which must be approved by congress.
Great Compromiseoffered a two-housed congress to satisgy both small and big states.
Each state would have equal representation in the senate or upper house.
size of the population of each state would determine the representation in the House of Representatives, or lower house.
Pleased those who favored government by the people, and those who defended states rights
Checks and BalancesEXACT DATE IS UNKNOWN, I've read that it was created sep. 1787
Legislative branch - makes laws
Executive branch - carrys out laws
Judicial branch - interpret the law
Developed to prevent one branch from dominating another
* Best to watch the video*
NullificationMade by John Calhoun
Federal tarrifs could be declared null and void by individual states that they could refuse to enforce.
*THIS HAS NO KNOWN DATE, JUST YEAR*
Second Great Awakening*DATE UNKNOWN, JUST YEAR*
Series of religious revivals based on Methodism and Baptism
Attracted women, African Americans, and Native Americans
Hamilton's Economic Plan*DATE UNKNOWN, JUST YEAR*'
Was made to manafe the countries debts and establish a national banking system
Proposed to pay off the foreign debt and to issue new bonds to cover the old ones
The federal government assume the debts of the states
Alien and Sedition Actscaused the growth of people from other countries coming to american, and plotting against the government
Alien: raised the residence requirement for American Citizenship from 5-14 years, allowed presidents to deport or jail any alien that was unwanted
Sedition: sets fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hunder the operation of thr government or expressing false/scandalous statements against government affairs
Nat TurnerBorn into slavery
He believed he had been chosen to lead his people out of bondage
Had 80 followers and killed 60 white inhabitants before being caught by State/Fed
Dorothea DixJoined the movement for social reform
Horrified that jails housed mentally ill people
Elizabeth StantonMember of womens rights
shocked other feminist by advocating sufferage of women
Decleration of Sentiments
American SystemCreated by Henry Clay
Unite the different regions of the country and create a strong, stable economy that'd make the nation self-sufficient
- developing transportation systems and other internal inprovements
- establishing a protective tarrif
- resurrecting the national bank
Missouri CompromiseMaine becomes an antislavery state to balance for Missouri having slaves.
To protect the sectional balance in the Senate.
Monroe DoctrinePres. Monroe disallowed for Europeans to colonize in the Americas
Erie Canalaka "The Big Ditch"
connects the Hudson River to Lake Erie
Tarrif of AbominationsHigh tarrif on manufactured goods reduced British exports to the United States and forced the south to buy the more expensive Northern manufactured goods.
Indian Removal ActPassed by Congress
The federal government provided funds that negotiate treaties that would force the Native Americans to move west.
Happened during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson
Lone Star Republic*DO NOT KNOW THE SPECIFIC DAY*
2nd pres. tried to establish relations with England and France
Renewed threats and internal conflicts
lead to Texas joinging the the US
Dred Scott vs. SandfordApril 6 is when dared to sue
Scott was an African American who was free for 4 years in the North
He sued for his freedom in the Surpreme Court
Court concluded that Scott is not a citizen, and had no right to sue in a United States Court
he becomes enslaved
Judge = Chief Justice Roger Taney
Wilmont ProvisoWritten by Democrat David WIlmont
Meant that California, Utah, and New Mexico would be closed to slavery forever.
Divided congress along regional lines
North promoted the Wilmont Proviso
Southerners feared that if the WIlmont were to be enacted, the addition of new free states would shift the balance of power permanently to the north.
House of Representatives approved Proviso, but Senate did
California Gold RushBrought immagrents to US from Asia, South America, and Europe.
Population exceeded 100,000
Chinese were the majority Immagrants
Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoSigned by US and Mexico
Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande boarder for Texas and ceded New Mexico/California to the US
The US agreed to pay $15 million
Treaty allowed mexican living in these territories freedom of religion, protection of property, bilingual elections, and open boarders.
Seneca Falls ConventionLead by Elizabeth Cody Stanton and Lucretia Mott
Organized women's rights convention
Nearly 300 women and men
Declaration of Sentiments
Compromise of 1850Proposed by Henry Clay
California becomes a free state, while New Mexico and Utah choose under Popular Sovereignty
The sale of slavers banned in District of Columbia
Fugitive Slave Act passed
Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute resolved: Texas paid $10 million by Federal Gov.
Popular Sovereignty: Right for residents to vote if they want to
be a slave state or not
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"Harriet Beecher Stowe is the author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Purpose of novel: to bring awareness of the horror inacted in slavery
Novel states that slavery was not only a political problem, but also a moral problem
1 million copies sold in middle of 1853
Northern abolitionists increased their protest AGAINST the Fugitive Slave Act
Southerns did not like the novel due to the attack on the south as a whole
Gave birth to a heated debate
Gadeden PurchaseEstablished the current boarders of the lower 48 states
Kansas-Nebraska Actntroduced by Douglas
Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the south
It would REPEAL the Missori Compromise and establish Popular Sovereignty for both territories
Northern Congressmen saw the bill as part of a plot to turn the territories inro slave states; but 90% of southerners voted for the bill.
Harper's FerryJohn Brown led a group of 21 men (black and white) into Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
He wanted to seize the federal arsenal, distribute the captured arms to slaves in the area, and start a general slave uprising.
No slave rebelled
Brown was captured
Confederate States of AmericaDelegates from the secessionist states met in Montgomery and Alabama, where they formed the confederacy
The confederate constitution "protected and recognized" slavery in new territories.
Battle of Fort SumterFirst battle of Civil War
Lincoln tried to reinforce the fort , but could not
North - 300 men, limited supplies of food, no reinforcements, defending.
South - unlimited troops, unlimited supplies, lots of reinforcements
April 12 - South open fired, and then it rained which stopped the firing.
April 13 - Fort Sumter surrendered with a 100 gun salute,
Total loss of the battle: 2 men
Began the war
Underground Railroad1861 - 1865
Free Africans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would (at great risks) help fugitive slaves escape.
People who helped were called "conductors"
Harriet Tubman was a major conductor on the 'railroad'.
Fugitive Slave Act: the government offered money to those in the north who turn in fugitive slaves. $10 for returning, $5 if freed. Anyone who helped was fined $1000 and/or imprisoned for 6 months.
Battle of Bull Run (1 and 2)FIRST BATTLE
aka. The first Manassas in prince william country
North - lead by General Irvin McDowell, lost 2,896
South - lead by General Joseh E. Johnston, lost 1982
South Won this battle
Lincoln signed an enlistment of 500,000 men for a service length of 3 years.
Irvin McDowell was replaced with George B. McClellan SECOND BATTLE
Aug 28-30, 1862
North - led by General John Pope lost 10,000
South - led by General Robert E. Lee, lost 1,300
Anaconda PlanWas a military plan designed by Winfield Scott. Emphasized the blockade of the sourthern ports and called for an advance down the missisippi river to cut the south in two.
Make south run out of supplies
Battle of AntietamGeneral Robert E. Lee vs. Genreal George McClellan
In Antietam creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland
McClellan launched attacks against Lees army in defensive positions
Both sides would get close and closer thn fire
26,000 losses in total
Lincoln fired McClellan
South lost 1/4 men
One of the final battles
Battle of FredericksburgDecember 11-15, 1862
General Ambrose Burnside vs. General Lee
Union lost 12,653
Confederate lost 5,377
ReconstructionDuring Radical Reconstruction, which began in 1867, newly enfranchised blacks gained a voice in government for the first time in American history, winning election to southern state legislatures and even to the U.S. Congress. In less than a decade, however, reactionary forces–including the Ku Klux Klan–would reverse the changes wrought by Radical Reconstruction in a violent backlash that restored white supremacy in the South.
Battle of ChancellorsvilleApril 30, 1863 to May 6 1863
South had their victory
North = General Hooker
South = General Robert E. Lee
Hooker tries cutting off souths supplies, and thought to attack the south from front and back
Bloodiest battle of its time, one of Lee's best battles
Test the limits of the southerners
North saw south as weak, but was proven wrong at this battle
Siege of VicksburgU.S. Grant vs. John T. Pemberton
Part of the Anaconda Plan
ended July 4 Union Victory
Union army wanted to cut the south in half by the Mississippi River
The falling city split the south in half, demonstrating Lincoln effectiveness
Took Texas and Louisianna out of the war.
Some women were brave enough to enter the battlefield in aid.
Battle of PetersburgJune 9 - 1864 to March 25, 1865
Consisted of trench warefare
largest concentration of African Americans
Cut off souths supply lines
North won due to souths retreat
Appomattox campaign ended the war
Battle of AtlantaNorth - William Sherman and General James B. MCPherson (commanded by Sherman). Destroyed factories, warhouses, railroads, and private homes
South - have element of surprise, greater numbers, General Johnston first held the defense
Union lost 3,400, confederate lost 8,500
Women hospitalize the soldiers
Africans followed Sherman to be free
Homestead Act passed
Shermans March to the SeaNov. 15 to Dec. 21 1864
March from atlanta to savannah (GA)
North remained normal (life) but the south suffered greatly; south feared Sherman
march attracted a huge number of refugees
Sherman recruited approx. 5,000 African American refugees to assist with the march.
Sherman used psychological tactics (took food, amunition; burned down houses, teared up railroads) = Unconditional warfare
"Total war" means all (soldiers and civilians are effected)
cash crops*DAY AND MONTH UNKNOWN*
one grown primarily for sale rather than for the farmers own use. Done by Robert Carter
tobacco, rice, and indigo = successful cash crops
Appomattox Court HouseLee surrendered to Grant
Signing took place in Wilmer Mclean house
Casualties = 700
South had to wave the white flag in order to save their people: they were low on supplies. Didn't lose that many people because they surrendered early
General George Mead shouted "It's all over!"
Battle took place on the persons lawn.
Ku Klux Klan*DAY AND MONTH UNKNOWN*
They believe in keeping the white man superior
Civil Rights Act 1866passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
14/15 AmendmentJuly 9, 1868 was when the 14 amendment was passed
states that citizens born on american soil get automatic american citizenship.
March 30, 1871 is when 15 amendment is passed
states that black men can vote
Renaissance*DAY AND MONTH UNKNOWN*
encouraged people to consider themselves as individuals have confidence in human capabilities, and look forward to fame due to achievements.
Important because it sparks adventure, discovery, and conquest