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Emma J A.H. period 1 2015

By emmaj16
  • Mar 4, 1394

    Prince Henry

    Sent Portuguese ships to explore the west coast of Africa. He had a motivation "the need to know"
    His burning passion launched the era of European expansion as well as funding creation of navel technology (compas)
  • Oct 31, 1450

    Christopher Columbus

    Plan was to sail west across the atlantic to find gold
    Plan was accepted Aug. 3,1492
    He landed in the Bahamas, bringing disease, killing natives. Mission brought together the americans, Europe, and African worlds.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    voyage of Columbus and others lead to an introduction of plants and animals; to Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Items brought from Eastern Hemisphere to western hemisphere.
    aka Triangular trade
  • Jan 1, 1580

    John Smith

    Helped hungry fight against the Turks, in return he became a knight.
    Because of him, production of the profitable crop of tobacco, Englands small, North American settlement survied
  • Joint-stock companies

    NO SPECIFIC TIME the buisness of colonization were funded by the spanish rulers, but England colonies were funded by joint-stock companies; which allowed several investors to pool their wealth in support of a colony that'd produce profit.
  • House of Burgesses

    The first representative body in colonial America
    the house claimed authority to raise taxes and make laws but can be vetod by english governor
    Only white male landowners can vote
    contributed to the development of representative government in english america
  • Enlightment

    idea that traveled from Europe to colonies, and spread quickly by books and pamphlets.
    Ideas about nature
    influenced by Nicolaus Cupernious, Galileo Galilei, and Sie Issac Newton
  • william Penn

    joined the Quakers
    Had dream of establishing a haven for Quakers in America
    Wanted to govern by: equality, cooperation, and religious tolerance
    Religious tolarance attracted many multiple faiths/beliefs
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Gathered an army to fight native americans on the Virginia frontier -- Declared by Governor Berkely illegal
    Fought for lack of representation in the house, ended up taxed/governed without farmers concent.
  • Iroquois League

    an oral agreement
    a confederation, a loose group of governments working together. Their purpose was to handle conflicts peacefully. Consists of 5 indian people: Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas
  • Alexander Hamilton

    Secretary of treasury
    Had faith in the common citizen and sided with the interests of upper-class men
    founder of "Hamiltons Economic Plan"
    Wanted a strong, central government, commerece, and industry
    He was a federalist
  • Articles of the Confederation

    Articles of the Confederation
    State governments were supreme (somewhat), while the national government was supreme in other matters.
    confederation = alliance
    gave national governent the power to declare war, make peace, and sign treaties. They could also borrow money, set standards for coins, weights, and measurements; establish a postal service, and deal with Native Americans.
    Creatred no department to carry out and enfore the acts of congress/national courts to interpret meaning of laws
  • Shays's Rebellion

    Shays's Rebellion
    THE DATE OF THIS EVENT IS UNKNOWN, all historians know is it's 1786 - 1787
    a farmers protest which caused panic and dismay throughtout the nation.
    Shay would demanded the courts be closed so they would not lose their farms to creditors.
    army of 1200
    risked the damage of private properties and the nations reputation
    Tax on Wiski
    Video: https://youtu.be/3ImIEcsTEVo
  • Three-fifths Compromise

    Three-fifths Compromise
    3/5 of a states slavers count towards the states population
    Gave rise to a political issue but not economical
  • Northwest Ordiance of 1787

    Northwest Ordiance of 1787
    Passed requirements for the admission of new states, and provided a system for dividing land into territories.
    1. congress will appoint a territorial governor and judges
    2. territory has 5,000 voting residents = settlers able to write a temorary constitution and elect their own government
    3. total population of region is 60,000 free inhabitants = settles able to write a state constitution, which must be approved by congress.
    Video: http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-northwest-ordinance-defini
  • Great Compromise

    Great Compromise
    offered a two-housed congress to satisgy both small and big states.
    Each state would have equal representation in the senate or upper house.
    size of the population of each state would determine the representation in the House of Representatives, or lower house.
    Pleased those who favored government by the people, and those who defended states rights
    Video: https://youtu.be/kCCmuftyj8A
  • Checks and Balances

    Checks and Balances
    EXACT DATE IS UNKNOWN, I've read that it was created sep. 1787
    Legislative branch - makes laws
    Executive branch - carrys out laws
    Judicial branch - interpret the law
    Developed to prevent one branch from dominating another
    * Best to watch the video*
    Video: https://youtu.be/0bf3CwYCxXw
  • Nullification

    Made by John Calhoun
    Federal tarrifs could be declared null and void by individual states that they could refuse to enforce.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Series of religious revivals based on Methodism and Baptism
    Attracted women, African Americans, and Native Americans
  • Hamilton's Economic Plan

    Was made to manafe the countries debts and establish a national banking system
    Proposed to pay off the foreign debt and to issue new bonds to cover the old ones
    The federal government assume the debts of the states
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    caused the growth of people from other countries coming to american, and plotting against the government
    Alien: raised the residence requirement for American Citizenship from 5-14 years, allowed presidents to deport or jail any alien that was unwanted
    Sedition: sets fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hunder the operation of thr government or expressing false/scandalous statements against government affairs
  • Nat Turner

    Born into slavery
    He believed he had been chosen to lead his people out of bondage
    Had 80 followers and killed 60 white inhabitants before being caught by State/Fed
  • Dorothea Dix

    Joined the movement for social reform
    Horrified that jails housed mentally ill people
  • Elizabeth Stanton

    Member of womens rights
    shocked other feminist by advocating sufferage of women
    Decleration of Sentiments
  • American System

    Created by Henry Clay
    Unite the different regions of the country and create a strong, stable economy that'd make the nation self-sufficient
    - developing transportation systems and other internal inprovements
    - establishing a protective tarrif
    - resurrecting the national bank
  • Missouri Compromise

    Maine becomes an antislavery state to balance for Missouri having slaves.
    To protect the sectional balance in the Senate.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Pres. Monroe disallowed for Europeans to colonize in the Americas
  • Erie Canal

    aka "The Big Ditch"
    connects the Hudson River to Lake Erie
  • Tarrif of Abominations

    High tarrif on manufactured goods reduced British exports to the United States and forced the south to buy the more expensive Northern manufactured goods.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Passed by Congress
    The federal government provided funds that negotiate treaties that would force the Native Americans to move west.
    Happened during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson
  • Lone Star Republic

    2nd pres. tried to establish relations with England and France
    Renewed threats and internal conflicts
    lead to Texas joinging the the US
  • Dred Scott vs. Sandford

    Dred Scott vs. Sandford
    April 6 is when dared to sue
    Scott was an African American who was free for 4 years in the North
    He sued for his freedom in the Surpreme Court
    Court concluded that Scott is not a citizen, and had no right to sue in a United States Court
    he becomes enslaved
    Video: http://study.com/academy/lesson/dred-scott-v-sanford-case-summary-decision.html
    Judge = Chief Justice Roger Taney
  • Wilmont Proviso

    Wilmont Proviso
    Written by Democrat David WIlmont
    Meant that California, Utah, and New Mexico would be closed to slavery forever.
    Divided congress along regional lines
    North promoted the Wilmont Proviso
    Southerners feared that if the WIlmont were to be enacted, the addition of new free states would shift the balance of power permanently to the north.
    House of Representatives approved Proviso, but Senate did
    Video: https://youtu.be/cEBJ2NewmN8
  • California Gold Rush

    Brought immagrents to US from Asia, South America, and Europe.
    Population exceeded 100,000
    Chinese were the majority Immagrants
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Signed by US and Mexico
    Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande boarder for Texas and ceded New Mexico/California to the US
    The US agreed to pay $15 million
    Treaty allowed mexican living in these territories freedom of religion, protection of property, bilingual elections, and open boarders.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Lead by Elizabeth Cody Stanton and Lucretia Mott
    Organized women's rights convention
    Nearly 300 women and men
    Declaration of Sentiments
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Proposed by Henry Clay
    California becomes a free state, while New Mexico and Utah choose under Popular Sovereignty
    The sale of slavers banned in District of Columbia
    Fugitive Slave Act passed
    Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute resolved: Texas paid $10 million by Federal Gov.
    Popular Sovereignty: Right for residents to vote if they want to
    be a slave state or not
    Video: https://youtu.be/VqKM8u1u1ZI
  • "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

    "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
    Harriet Beecher Stowe is the author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
    Purpose of novel: to bring awareness of the horror inacted in slavery
    Novel states that slavery was not only a political problem, but also a moral problem
    1 million copies sold in middle of 1853
    Northern abolitionists increased their protest AGAINST the Fugitive Slave Act
    Southerns did not like the novel due to the attack on the south as a whole
    Gave birth to a heated debate
  • Gadeden Purchase

    Established the current boarders of the lower 48 states
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    ntroduced by Douglas
    Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the south
    It would REPEAL the Missori Compromise and establish Popular Sovereignty for both territories
    Northern Congressmen saw the bill as part of a plot to turn the territories inro slave states; but 90% of southerners voted for the bill.
  • Harper's Ferry

    Harper's Ferry
    John Brown led a group of 21 men (black and white) into Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
    He wanted to seize the federal arsenal, distribute the captured arms to slaves in the area, and start a general slave uprising.
    No slave rebelled
    Brown was captured
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    Delegates from the secessionist states met in Montgomery and Alabama, where they formed the confederacy
    The confederate constitution "protected and recognized" slavery in new territories.
    Video: https://youtu.be/SJVHZsKOEY0
  • Battle of Fort Sumter

    Battle of Fort Sumter
    First battle of Civil War
    Lincoln tried to reinforce the fort , but could not
    North - 300 men, limited supplies of food, no reinforcements, defending.
    South - unlimited troops, unlimited supplies, lots of reinforcements
    April 12 - South open fired, and then it rained which stopped the firing.
    April 13 - Fort Sumter surrendered with a 100 gun salute,
    Total loss of the battle: 2 men
    Began the war
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    1861 - 1865
    Free Africans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would (at great risks) help fugitive slaves escape.
    People who helped were called "conductors"
    Harriet Tubman was a major conductor on the 'railroad'.
    Fugitive Slave Act: the government offered money to those in the north who turn in fugitive slaves. $10 for returning, $5 if freed. Anyone who helped was fined $1000 and/or imprisoned for 6 months.
  • Battle of Bull Run (1 and 2)

    Battle of Bull Run (1 and 2)
    aka. The first Manassas in prince william country
    North - lead by General Irvin McDowell, lost 2,896
    South - lead by General Joseh E. Johnston, lost 1982
    South Won this battle
    Lincoln signed an enlistment of 500,000 men for a service length of 3 years.
    Irvin McDowell was replaced with George B. McClellan SECOND BATTLE
    Aug 28-30, 1862
    North - led by General John Pope lost 10,000
    South - led by General Robert E. Lee, lost 1,300
    South Won
  • Anaconda Plan

    Anaconda Plan
    Was a military plan designed by Winfield Scott. Emphasized the blockade of the sourthern ports and called for an advance down the missisippi river to cut the south in two.
    Make south run out of supplies
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    General Robert E. Lee vs. Genreal George McClellan
    In Antietam creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland
    McClellan launched attacks against Lees army in defensive positions
    Both sides would get close and closer thn fire
    26,000 losses in total
    Lincoln fired McClellan
    South lost 1/4 men
    Bloodiest battle
    One of the final battles
  • Battle of Fredericksburg

    Battle of Fredericksburg
    December 11-15, 1862
    General Ambrose Burnside vs. General Lee
    Union lost 12,653
    Confederate lost 5,377
  • Reconstruction

    During Radical Reconstruction, which began in 1867, newly enfranchised blacks gained a voice in government for the first time in American history, winning election to southern state legislatures and even to the U.S. Congress. In less than a decade, however, reactionary forces–including the Ku Klux Klan–would reverse the changes wrought by Radical Reconstruction in a violent backlash that restored white supremacy in the South.
  • Battle of Chancellorsville

    Battle of Chancellorsville
    April 30, 1863 to May 6 1863
    South had their victory
    North = General Hooker
    South = General Robert E. Lee
    Hooker tries cutting off souths supplies, and thought to attack the south from front and back
    Bloodiest battle of its time, one of Lee's best battles
    Test the limits of the southerners
    North saw south as weak, but was proven wrong at this battle
  • Siege of Vicksburg

    Siege of Vicksburg
    U.S. Grant vs. John T. Pemberton
    Part of the Anaconda Plan
    37,400 losses
    ended July 4 Union Victory
    Union army wanted to cut the south in half by the Mississippi River
    The falling city split the south in half, demonstrating Lincoln effectiveness
    Took Texas and Louisianna out of the war.
    Some women were brave enough to enter the battlefield in aid.
  • Battle of Petersburg

    Battle of Petersburg
    June 9 - 1864 to March 25, 1865
    Consisted of trench warefare
    largest concentration of African Americans
    Cut off souths supply lines
    North won due to souths retreat
    Appomattox campaign ended the war
  • Battle of Atlanta

    Battle of Atlanta
    North - William Sherman and General James B. MCPherson (commanded by Sherman). Destroyed factories, warhouses, railroads, and private homes
    South - have element of surprise, greater numbers, General Johnston first held the defense
    Union lost 3,400, confederate lost 8,500
    Union Victory
    Women hospitalize the soldiers
    Africans followed Sherman to be free
    Homestead Act passed
    Politically important
  • Shermans March to the Sea

    Shermans March to the Sea
    Nov. 15 to Dec. 21 1864
    "Savannah Campaign"
    March from atlanta to savannah (GA)
    North remained normal (life) but the south suffered greatly; south feared Sherman
    march attracted a huge number of refugees
    Sherman recruited approx. 5,000 African American refugees to assist with the march.
    Sherman used psychological tactics (took food, amunition; burned down houses, teared up railroads) = Unconditional warfare
    "Total war" means all (soldiers and civilians are effected)
  • cash crops

    one grown primarily for sale rather than for the farmers own use. Done by Robert Carter
    tobacco, rice, and indigo = successful cash crops
  • Appomattox Court House

    Appomattox Court House
    Lee surrendered to Grant
    Signing took place in Wilmer Mclean house
    Casualties = 700
    South had to wave the white flag in order to save their people: they were low on supplies. Didn't lose that many people because they surrendered early
    General George Mead shouted "It's all over!"
    Battle took place on the persons lawn.
  • Ku Klux Klan

    They believe in keeping the white man superior
  • Civil Rights Act 1866

    passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
  • 14/15 Amendment

    July 9, 1868 was when the 14 amendment was passed
    states that citizens born on american soil get automatic american citizenship.
    March 30, 1871 is when 15 amendment is passed
    states that black men can vote
  • Renaissance

    meaning "rebirth"
    encouraged people to consider themselves as individuals have confidence in human capabilities, and look forward to fame due to achievements.
    Important because it sparks adventure, discovery, and conquest