Earthquake History

By PB-273
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    What Is Seismology?

    Seismology is the scientific stufy of earth and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like areas. The domain includes studying earthquakes and the effects, such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes (such as explosions).
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    Live SeismographsSeismographs are intruments which measures the earthquake (seismic) waves, their placement is in a solid position either on the bedrock or on a concrete base. Seismographs have the abilities to determine:
    -Magnitude: the size of the earthquake
    -Depth: how deep the earthquake was
    -Location: where the earthquake occurred
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    Seismographs - 2

    Seismographs - 2
    Seismographs might seem as a new piece of technology, but it surprisingly isn't. The first seismograph was invented in 132AD, the the prime recording usage of a device originates from the second century China. A mathematician called Chang Heng invented the device which he called an 'earthquake weathercock.'
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    Seismographs - 3

    Seismographs - 3
    Each of the dragons, contained a small bronze ball in its mouth. Whenever a tremor occured, the mouth of the dragon would open and drop the ball into the mouth of one of the frogs below. They were even able to tell where the tremor came from by seeing which dragon had dropped the ball.
    -Two years later, an updated verion of the seismograph was invented but instead of bronze balls, liquid was the replacement and measured/calculated the szie of the tremar based on the amount of liquid displaced.
  • Oct 11, 1138

    Aleppo Earthquake

    Aleppo Earthquake
    Magnitude - 8.5
    Casualties/Fatalities - 230,000
    Demographics - The land that is the outskirts of Aleppo is farmland, in the center of Aleppo is a few hills and a lot of buildings such as castles and homes etc. The amount of the population who were Muslims was 76,329 (70.58%), Christians -mostly Catholics- 24,508 and Jews 7,306 (6.76%). One of the regions that got hit was Harem where Crusaders had built a large citadel.
  • Oct 11, 1138

    Aleppo Earthquake - 2

    The fort of Atharib which held Muslims was destroyed. The citadel also collapsed, killing 600 of the castle guards, though the governor and few of the servants survived, and fled to Mosul. The citadel collapsed, killing 600 of the castle guard, though the governor and some servants survived, and fled to Mosul. Due to the large population of muslims, many of the muslims died because they tend to live in the houses, forts etc and remained there, later on the buildings collapsed.
  • May 27, 1293

    Kamakura Earthquake

    Kamakura Earthquake
    Magnitude - 7.1–7.5
    Casaulties - 23,024
    Demographics - Kamakura is surrounded from the north, east and west hills and south by the open water of Sagami Bay, Kamakura is a natural fortress. Due to being enclosed by water and natural dams, a tsunami also occured which was which of the death toll.
  • Jan 23, 1556

    Shaanxi Earthquake/Hua County

    Shaanxi Earthquake/Hua County
    Magnitude - 8.0 to 8.3
    Date/Time - MORNING, January 23 1556
    Casualties/Fatalities - 830,00 casualties
    The cost of damage by the earthquake is almost impossible to measure in modern ways The death toll, however, has been given as 820,000 to 830,000. The property damage wouldn't have been calculable – an entire inner region of China had been destroyed and an estimated 60% of the area's population died.
  • Jan 23, 1556

    Shaanxi Earthquake/Hua County - 2

    During the time, millions of citizens were living in artificial Loess caves which are located on high cliffs in the area of the Loess Plateau. Shanxi is almost fully covered with the Loess Plateau and its silty soil. A lot of the population tend to live dwellings which are known as yaodongs; the earthquake caused landslides which destroyed the caves and the people living in them.
  • Lisbon Earthquake

    Lisbon Earthquake
    Magnitutde - 8.7
    Time - 10:16 UTC
    Casualties/Fatalities - approximately 10,000 to 100,000
    Damage Description: Lisbon’s dwellings—about 23,000 buildings
  • Lisbon Earthquake - 4 [SEISMOLOGY]

    Without the query written by the Marquis of Pombal, the studying have been impossible. Due to the marquis being the first to attempt an objective scientific description of the broad causes and consequences of an earthquake, he is taken into accounts as a forerunner of modern seismological scientists. Comtemporary scientists in the region continue to discuss and debate the geological causes of this earthquake and the seismic activity.
  • Lisbon Earthquake - 3 [SEISMOLOGY]

    -How many people died and were any of them distinguished?
    -Did the sea rise or fall first, and how many hands did it rise above the normal?
    -If fire broke out, how long did it last and what damage did it cause?
    The answers to these and other questions are still archived in the Torre do Tombo, the national historical archive. Modern scientists were able capable to reconstruct the event from a scientific perspective, by studying and cross-referencing the priests' accounts.
  • Lisbon Earthquake - 2 [SEISMOLOGY]

    The repsonse of the prime minister did not limit to the practicalities of reconstruction. A query was composed and sent to all parishes of the country arpopos the earthquake and its effects. Questions included:
    -At what time did the earthquake begin and how long did the earthquake last?
    -Did you perceive the shock to be greater from one direction than another? Example, from north to south? Did buildings seem to fall more to one side than the other?
  • Intensity and Magnitude Scales

    Intensity and Magnitude Scales
    Intensity has nothing mathematical, it isn't based on math. It is based on observed effects on: people, human structures, and the natural environment itself.
    The first report which used the Intensity measurement has been linked to the Italian Schiantarelli, who recorded the intensity of the 1783 earthquake that occurred in Calabrian, Italy.
  • Intensity and Magnitude Scales

    -Magnitude is a number that characterizes the size of an earthquake by measuring the motions recorded by a seismograph and correcting the distance to the epicenter of the earthquake. ---The magnitude of an earthquake is determined by seismographs.
    Intensity is different. Intensity is the measurement of strength and the shaking produced by the earthquake at a certain location.
  • Water & Mercury Seismometers

    Water & Mercury Seismometers
    This was the first device that recorded the time of the earthquake and the intensity and duration of any movement were devices which used water movement and mercury, all were developed in Italy. In the year 1855, Luigi Palmieri designed a mercury seismometer.
  • Water & Mercury Seismometers - 2

    Water & Mercury Seismometers - 2
    The seismometer incorporate U-shaped tubes that filled with mercury and were arranged along the compass points. While an earthquake occured, the mercury would move and make electrical contact thus stopping a clock and started a recording drum where the movement of a buoyant device on the surface of mercury was recorded.
  • Twenty-First Century Seismographs

    John Milne, was an English seismologist and geologist, he is the man who developed the first of modern seismographs. The year 1880, Sir James Alfred Ewing, Thomas Gray and John Milne, all British scientists began working in Japan to begin their study of earthquakes.
  • Twenty-First Century Seismographs - 2

    Twenty-First Century Seismographs - 2
    These men are the founders of Seismological Society of Japan and the society funded the invention of seismographs. Back to Milne, he invented the horizontal pendulum seismograph in 1880. When World War II was over, the horizontal pendulum seismograph was improved with the Press-Ewing seismograph, which was generated in the United States for recording long-period waves.
    Modern times, gloablly this scale is used amongst many countries. The Press-Ewing seismograph uses pendulum which is Milne's.
  • Rossi-Forel Scale

    Rossi-Forel Scale
    The first modern intensity scale was composed by Michele de Rossi of Italy (1874) and Francois Forel of Switzerland (1881). Both independantly made intensity scales which were similar to each other. Later on, Rossi and Forel collaborated and produced the Rossi-Forel Scale in 1883. The scale consisted of ten levels of intensity and later on became the internationally wide used scale. Years pass, 1902 Italian volcanologist Giuseppe Mercalli created a twelve-degree scale of intensity.
  • Haiyuan, Ningxia

    Haiyuan, Ningxia
    Magnitude - 7.8
    Casaulties/Fatalities - 200,000
    Other - Lijunbu,Haiyuan,Ganyanchi was brought down with destruction. In the Haiyuan County over 73,000 people were killed . More than 30,000 people were killed in the Guyuan County.
  • Kanto, Japan

    Kanto, Japan
    Magnitude - 7.9
    Casaulties/Fatalities - 142,800
    Locations - Tokyo,Yokohama
  • Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale

    Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale
    In spite of the fact that numerous intensity scales have been developed over the past few centuries to analyse the effects of earthquakes. The United States is currently using the Modified Mercalli (MM) Intensity Scale. American seismologists Harry Wood and Frank Neumann produced this scale in 1931. The difference between Rossi-Ferol and MM intensity scale is that MM consists of a 12 degree rank unlike the Rossi-Ferol is only 10.
  • Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale - 2

    The twelve degree rank went from imperceptible shaking to catastrophic destruction, the scale was designated by Roman numerals.

    No mathetical field is involved, only observed effects.
  • Richter Magnitude Scale

    Richter Magnitude Scale
    Richter Magnitude Scale was advanced by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology in 1935. The Richeter scale expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions, ie a magnitude 5.3 might be considered as a moderate earthquake, and a strong earthquake might be rated as magnitude 6.3. Due to the scales logarithmic system, every whole number increases in magnitude representing a tenfold in measured proportion.
  • Richter Magnitude Scale - 2

    As an estimation, each whole number corresponds with the amount of energy which is released.

    In the beginning, the Richter Scale could only register records from instruments of identical manufacture. Nowadays, earthquake technology/instruments are calibrated with respect to each other carefully. Thus, letting magnitude having the ability to compute from records of any calibrated seismograph.
  • Ashgabat Earthquake

    Ashgabat Earthquake
    Magnitude - 7.3
    Casaulties/Fatalities - 110,000 to 176,000
  • Tangshan, China

    Tangshan, China
    Magnitutde - 7.5
    Time - 3:42 a.m. (Local Time)
    Casaulties/Fatalities - 655,000
  • Sumatra, Indonesia

    Sumatra, Indonesia
    Magnitude - 9.1
    Casualties/Fatalities - 227,898
    Type - Undersea (Subduction)
    Locations Affected - Meulaboh, Aceh Province, Sumatra (Indonesia)
    DEMOGRAPHICS - Sumtatra is an island nortwest of Indonesia, and is sourrounded completely of water. The earthquake originally ooccured underwater, but moved along to Sumatra thus creating an earthquake as well as 10m high tsunami.
  • Sumatra, Indonesia - 2

    A majority of people in Sumatra are Muslims (87%), while 10% are Christians, 2% are Buddhist and 1% are Hindu. Due to a larger population of Muslims, many of the fatalities of people were Muslim.
  • Haiti

    Magnitude - 7.0
    Casualties/Fatalities - 222,570
    Other - 300,000 were injured, 1.3 million reported missing 97,294 houses destroyed and 188,383 damaged in the Port-au-Prince region and a lot of southern Haiti.
  • Southern Qinghai, China

    Southern Qinghai, China
    Magnitutde- - 6.9
    Date/Time - Tuesday, April 13, 2010 at 23:49:38 UTC
    Depth - 17 km (10.6 miles)
    Casualties/Fatalities - 2,698 people killed, 270 missing, 12,135 injured and 15,000 buildings damaged in the Yushu area.
  • Bulgaria

    Magtitude - 5.6
    Date/Time - Tuesday, May 22, 2012 at 00:00:33 UTC
    Depth - 9.4 km (5.8 miles)
  • Bohol, Philippines

    Bohol, Philippines
    Magnitude - 7.2
    Regions -
    Cost - ₱2.25 billion
    Casaualties - 3.2 million people were affected by the quake (671,103 were families). Out of the total number of affected, 71,822 families or more than 348 thousand people were reported missing.
    Demographics - Bohol is covered which many mountains and lots of them having steel slopes, landslides occured. 58% of the population belongs to the productive or working age group (15-64 years), 39% are under 15.
    age group (0-14 years) and 5% is 65+.
  • Damghan, Iran

    Damghan, Iran
    Magnitude - 7.9
    Casualties - 200,000
    Cost - $25,000,000+
    Other - This particular earthquake ht a 200-mile stretch of the northern part of, which is the epicenter underneath the city of Demghan, which was the capital city (during that time). Majority of he city was destroyed including the neighbouring areas.
  • Damghan, Iran - 2

    The area which suffered significent damage was along Albortz, including the towns of Aheavnu, Astan, Tash, Bastam and Shahrud, majoirty of the villages in the region were damaged severely. Hecotampylos, now known as Šahr-e Qumis, the former capital of Parthia, was brought down with destruction. Half of Damghan and a third of the Bustam town were also destroyed.
  • Damghab, Iran - 3

    The water supplies in the Qumis area were badly affected, to some extent due to springs and qanats drying up, but also becuase of landslides damming streams. There were landslides occuring due to the hills surrounding Damghan. Another note taken by survivors, was that many of the buildings fell, even mosques, which meant the area had many buildings which killed people.