Abolitiomthe movement to abolish slavery
Missouri CompromiseMainew admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state
Louisiana Territory split into two, dividing line set at 3630 north latitude, south of line were slave states, north excluding Missouri were free states
Santa Fe TrailSeries of old Native American trails
stretched 780 miles from Independence Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. For first 150 miles traders traveled individually but after that they travel in groups of up to 100 wagons bc of the fear of Native attacks
San Felipe de AustinThe main settlement of the colony was named San Felipe de Austin, in
Stephen’s honor. By 1825, Austin had issued 297 land grants to the group that later
became known as Texas’s Old Three Hundred. Each family received either 177 very
inexpensive acres of farmland, or 4,428 acres for stock grazing, as well as a 10-year
exemption from paying taxes
Stephen F Austin : established a colony where “no drunkard, no gambler, no profan
swearer, and no idler” would be allowed.
The LiberatorWilliam Lloyd Garrison. Active in religious reform movements
in Massachusetts, Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828.
Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising
demand: immediate emancipation.
Nat Turner's RebellionIn August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four
plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed
many members of the group, including Turner.
Oregon TrailStretched from Independence Missouri to Oregon City, Oregon
Blazed in by 2 methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, they showed that you could get to Oregon on a wagon. Following their lead many decided to migrate west
Texas RevlutionRebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico.
Manifest DestinyBelief that the US was meant to be expanded towards the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native lands. Americans believed that it was inevitable (not avoidable)
Texas enters the USTexans killed 630 of Santa Anna’s soldiers in 18 minutes
and captured Santa Anna himself. The Texans set Santa Anna free only after
he signed the Treaty of Velasco, which granted independence to Texas. In
September 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of the new Republic of Texas.
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas DebatesThe two men’s positions were simple and consistent.
Neither wanted slavery in the territories,
but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas believed deeply in
popular sovereignty. Lincoln, on the other hand, believed that slavery
was immoral. However, he did not expect individuals to give up
slavery unless Congress abolished slavery with an amendment.
Mexican American WarApril 25 1846-1848 war was initiated by Mexico and resulted in Mexico's defeat and the loss of approximately half of its national territory in the north.
The North StarIn 1847, Fredrick Douglass began his own
antislavery newspaper. He named it
The North Star, after the star that
guided runaway slaves to freedom
Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoMexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and
ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. The United States agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican cession, which included presentday
California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of
Colorado and Wyoming.
Underground Rail RoadHarriet Tubman created it
“Conductors” on the routes hid fugitives in
secret tunnels and false cupboards, provided them with food and clothing,
and escorted or directed them to the next “station.” Once fugitives
reached the North, many chose to remain there. Others journeyed to
Canada to be completely out of reach of their “owners.”
Compromise of 1850After obtaining support of the powerful
Massachusetts senator Daniel Webster, Clay presented to the Senate a series of resolutions
later called the Compromise of 1850.
Clay’s compromise contained provisions to appease Northerners as well as
Southerners. To please the North, the compromise provided that California beadmitted to the Union as a free state. To please the South, the compromise proposed
a new and more effective fugitive slave law. To placate both sides, a provision
allowed popular sov
Fugitive Slave ActUnder the law,
alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted
of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for
up to six months. Infuriated by the Fugitive Slave Act, some Northerners resisted
it by organizing “vigilance committees” to send endangered African Americans to
safety in Canada. Others resorted to violence to rescue fugitive slaves. Still others
worked to help slaves escape from slavery.
Uncle Tom's CabinHarriet
Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed
that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
As a young girl, Stowe had watched boats filled with people on
their way to be sold at slave markets. Uncle Tom’s Cabin expressed her
lifetime hatred of slavery. The book stirred Northern abolitionists to
increase their protests against the Fugitive Slave Act, while Southerners criticized the book as an
attack on the South
Kansas Nebraska ActSenator Stephen Douglas
dividing Kansas and by two since on 3630 parrellel
Dread Scott v Sanfordowner took him to free state and back to slave state
argued that he was a free man when he was in the free state
tried suing but didnt work, ogv said he lacks legal power bc not citizen
John Brown's riad/ Harpes FerryJohn Brown led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia
(now West Virginia). His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there
and start a general slave uprising
Abraham Lincoln Becomes presidentLincoln appeared to be moderate
in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also
tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “interfere
with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves.” Nonetheless, many
Southerners viewed him as an enemy.
Conscriptiondraft that forced men to serve in the army.
In the North, conscription led to draft riots, the most violent of which took place in New York City. Sweeping changes occurred in the wartime economies of both sides as well as in the roles played by African Americans and women
Income TaxCongress decided to help pay for the war by collecting the nation’s first income tax, a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income.
Formation of the COnfederacyLincoln’s victory convinced Southerners—who had
viewed the struggle over slavery partly as a conflict between the states’ right of self-determination and federal government control—that they had lost their political voice in the national government, made in southern states
attack on Fort SumterConfederate soldiers
in each secessionist state began seizing federal installations—especially forts. By
the time of Lincoln’s inauguration on March 4, 1861, only four Southern forts remained in Union hands. The most important was Fort Sumter, on an island in Charleston harbor.
The battle of bull runThe first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three months
after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run, just 25 miles from Washington, D.C. First confederate victory
Battle of AntietamMcClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two
sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the
Antietam (Bn-tCPtEm). The clash proved to be the bloodiest
single-day battle in American history, with casualties
totaling more than 26,000. The next day, instead of pursuing
the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly
ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result,
Lincoln removed him from command.
Battle at GettysburgBy the end of the first day of fighting, 90,000
Union troops under the command of General George Meade had taken the field against 75,000 Confederates, led by General Lee. The three-day battle produced staggering losses: 23,000 Union men and 28,000 Confederates were killed or wounded. Total casualties were more than 30 percent. Despite the devastation, Northerners were enthusiastic about breaking “the charm of Robert Lee’s invincibility.” Confederates gave up
Emancipation Proclamationestablished by Lincoln to sieze the resources
told slaves on confederate side that they can be free
Gettysburg AddressPresident Lincoln spoke for a little more
than two minutes. According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s
Gettysburg Address “remade America.” Before Lincoln’s speech, people said,
“The United States are . . .” Afterward, they said, “The United States is . . .” In
other words, the speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection
of individual states; it was one unified nation.
Battle of VIcksburgant and his troops rushed to Vicksburg, hoping to take the city while the rebels were reeling from their losses. Grant ordered two frontal attacks on Vicksburg, neither of which succeeded. So, in the last week of May 1863, Grant settled in for a siege. He set up a steady barrage of artillery, shelling the city from both the river and the land for several hours a day, forcing the city’s residents into caves that they dug out of the yellow
clay hillsides , ppl eat dogs bc food low
Sherman's marchmarch southeast through
Georgia to the sea, creating a
wide path of destruction. His
army burned almost every house
in its path and destroyed livestock
and railroads. Sherman was
determined to make Southerners "sick of war"
followed by 25k former slaves
thirteenth amendmentAbolished slavery
Surrender at Appomattox Court HouseLee and Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. At Lincoln’s request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. Officers were permitted to keep their side arms. Within a month all remaining Confederate resistance collapsed. After four long years, the Civil War was over
Assassination of Abraham LincolnJohn Wilkes Booth,
southerner that supported slavery
Ford's Theatre washington
Harriet Tubmanborn as slave, owners died, fear of being sold into slavery again, became conducter travel 19 times back and forth help people