Civil war

Civil War

  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. The dividing line was set at 36°30´ north latitude. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line—except in Missouri—slavery was banned. (James Monroe)
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman,
    born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821.Tubman decided to make a break for freedom and succeeded in reaching Philadelphia.
  • Santa Fe Trail

    Santa Fe Trail
    One of the busiest routes was the Santa Fe Trail, which stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico.
  • San Felipe de Austin

    San Felipe de Austin
    In 1821 Stephen F. Austin established a colony where “no drunkard, no gambler, no profane swearer, and no idler” would be allowed. Stephen obtained permission, first from Spain and then
    from Mexico after it had won its independence, to carry out his father’s project.
  • The Liberator

    Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising demand: immediate emancipation.
  • Mexico abolishes slavery

    Mexico abolishes slavery
    Many of the settlers were Southerners, who had brought slaves with them to Texas. Mexico, which had abolished slavery in 1829, insisted in vain that the Texans free their slaves.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    In August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four
    plantations and killed about 60 whites.
  • Stephen F. Austin goes to jail

    Stephen F. Austin goes to jail
    On Austins way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting revolution.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail stretched from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon. Many pioneers mirgrated west on the Oregon Trail.
  • Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution
    The 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The belief that the United States was ordained to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory.
  • Abolition

    Abolition
    Abolition, the movement to abolish slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
  • Texas enters the United States

    Texas enters the United States
    Most Texans hoped that the United States would annex their republic, but U.S. opinion divided along sectional lines. On December 29, 1845, Texas entered the Union.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    It pitted a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico against the expansionist-minded administration of U.S. President James K. Polk, who believed the United States had a “manifest destiny” to spread across the continent to the Pacific Ocean.
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    In 1847, Douglass began his own antislavery newspaper. He named it The North Star, after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    On February 2, 1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. The United States States agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican cession, which included presentday California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of
    Colorado and Wyoming.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Clay’s compromise contained provisions to appease Northerners as well as Southerners. To please the North, the compromise provided that California be admitted to the Union as a free state. To please the South, the compromise proposed a new and more effective fugitive slave law. The Compromise of 1850 had provided for popular sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    Under the law, alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for up to six months.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    Free African Americans and white abolitionists developed a
    secret network of people who would, at great risk to themselves, hide fugitive slaves. The system of escape routes they used became known as the Underground Railroad.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
  • Dread Scott v. Sandford

    Dread Scott v. Sandford
    Dred Scott, a slave whose owner took him from the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin and back to Missouri. Scott appealed to the Supreme Court for his
    freedom on the grounds that living in a free state—Illinois—and a free territory—Wisconsin—had made him a free man. The case was in court for years. Finally, on March 6, 1857, the Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott.
  • Kanas-Nebraska Act

    Douglas introduced a bill in Congress on January 23, 1854,
    that would divide the area into two territories: Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the south. If passed, the bill
    would repeal the Missouri Compromise and establish popular sovereignty for both territories.
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    The 1858 race for the U.S. Senate between Democratic incumbent Stephen Douglas and Republican challenger Congressman Abraham Lincoln. Neither wanted slavery in the territories, but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas believed deeply in popular sovereignty. Lincoln, on the other hand, believed that slavery was immoral. Douglas won the Senate seat, but his response had widened the split in the Democratic Party.
  • John Brown's raid/ Harpers Ferry

    John Brown's raid/ Harpers Ferry
    On the night of October 16, 1859, he led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there and start a general slave uprising.
  • Abraham Lincoln becomes president

    Abraham Lincoln becomes president
    As the 1860 presidential election approached, the Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln appeared to be moderate in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “interfere with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves.”
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Formation of the Confederacy
    Lincoln’s victory convinced Southerners—who had viewed the struggle over slavery partly as a conflict between the states’ right of self-determination and federal government control—that they had lost their political voice in the national government.
  • Income Tax

    Income Tax
    As the Northern economy grew, Congress decided to help pay for the war by collecting the nation’s first income tax, a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income.
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    Lincoln decided to neither abandon Fort Sumter nor reinforce it. He would merely send in “food for hungry men.” At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, Confederate batteries began thundering away to the cheers of Charleston’s citizens. The deadly struggle between North and South was under way. The four remaining slave states— Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri—remained in the Union.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    McClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two
    sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the
    Antietam.
  • Battle at Gettysburg

    Battle at Gettysburg
    Near the sleepy town of Gettysburg, in southern Pennsylvania, the most decisive battle of the war was fought. The Battle
    of Gettysburg began on July 1 when Confederate soldiers led by A. P. Hill encountered several brigades of Union cavalry under the command of John Buford, an experienced officer from Illinois. After the battle, Lee gave up any hopes of invading the North and led his army back to Virginia.
  • Battle at Vicksburg

    Battle at Vicksburg
    In the winter of 1862–1863, Grant tried several schemes to reach Vicksburg and take it from the Confederates. Nothing seemed to work—until the spring of 1863. Grant began by weakening the Confederate defenses that protected Vicksburg. the Confederate command of Vicksburg asked Grant for terms of surrender.
    The city fell on July 4.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    The first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three months after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run, just 25 miles from Washington, D.C. The battle was a seesaw affair. In the afternoon Confederate reinforcements helped win the first Southern victory.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Lincoln did find a way to use his constitutional war powers to end slavery. Therefore, he decided
    that, just as he could order the Union army to take Confederate supplies, he could also authorize the army to emancipate slaves. Emancipation was not just a moral issue; it became a weapon of war. On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Conscription

    Conscription
    As the fighting intensified, heavy casualties and widespread desertions led each side to impose conscription, a draft that forced men to serve in the army.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address “remade America.” Before Lincoln’s speech, people said, “The United States are . . .” Afterward, they said, “The United States is . . .” In other words, the speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection
    of individual states; it was one unified nation.
  • Sherman's March

    Sherman's March
    In the spring of 1864, Sherman began his march southeast through Georgia to the sea, creating a wide path of destruction. His army burned almost every house in its path and destroyed livestock and railroads.
  • Surrender at Appomattox Court House

    On April 9, 1865, in a Virgina town called Appomattox Court House, Lee and Grant met in a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. After four long years, the Civil war was over.
  • Thirteenth Amendment

    Thirteenth Amendment
    After some political maneuvering, the
    Thirteenth Amendment was ratified at
    the end of 1865. The U.S. Constitution now
    stated, “Neither slavery nor involuntary
    servitude, except as a punishment for crime
    whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
    shall exist within the United States.”
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    On April 14, 1865, five days after
    Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox,
    Lincoln and his wife went to Ford’s Theatre
    in Washington to see a British comedy, Our
    American Cousin. During its third act, John Wilkes Booth
    crept up behind Lincoln and shot the president
    in the back of his head.
    Lincoln, who never regained consciousness,
    died on April 15.