Civil war 1863 for ipad

Civil War

  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    a series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states. Maine: free state and Missouri: a slave state
  • Abolition

    the movement to abolish
    slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    One of the most famous conductors, was called
    “Moses” by those
    she helped
    escape on the
  • Santa Fe Trail

    stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico.
  • San Felipe de Austin

    The main settlement of the colony established by Stephen F. Austin. He obtained permission first from Spain and then from Mexico after it had won independence, to carry out his father's project.
  • Mexico abolishes slavery

    Many of the Southerners settlers had brought slaves with them to Texas. Mexico, who had abolished slavery, insisted in vain that the Texans free their slaves.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four
    plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed
    many members of the group, including Turner.
  • The Liberator

    an antislavery paper delivering an uncompromising
    demand: immediate emancipation of slaves.
  • Stephen F. Autin goes to jail

    Austin traveled to Mexico to present petitions to Mexican president antonio Lopez de Santa Anna for greater self-government for Texas. Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting revolution.
  • Oregon Trail

    stretched from Independence to Oregon City. It was blazed by two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. They proved thsat wagons could travel on Oregon Trail.
  • Texas Revolution

    rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico.
  • Manifest Destinty

    Manifest Destinty
    expressed the belief that the United States was ordained to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory.
  • Texas enters United States

    U.S presdidential campaign focused on westward expansion. James K. Polk firmly favored the annexation of Texas.
  • Mexican-American War

    Texas gained its independence from Mexico in 1836. Initially, the United States declined to incorporate it into the union, largely because northern political interests were against the addition of a new slave state. The Mexican government was also encouraging border raids and warning that any attempt at annexation would lead to war.
  • The North Star

    Frederick Douglass's antislavery newspaper, named it The North Star, after the star that
    guided runaway slaves to freedom.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The treaty ending the U.S war with Mexico, in which Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the United States.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Henry Clay worked to shape a compromise that both the North
    and the South could accept. After obtaining support of the powerful
    Massachusetts senator Daniel Webster, Clay presented to the Senate a series of resolutions
    later called the Compromise of 1850. To please the North, the compromise provided that California be admitted to the Union as a free state. To please the South, the compromise proposed
    a new and more effective fugitive slave law.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Under the law,
    alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted
    of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for
    up to six months.
  • Underground Railroad

    As time went on, free African Americans and white abolitionists developed a
    secret network of people who would, at great risk to themselves, hide fugitive
    slaves. The system of escape routes they used became known as the
    Underground Railroad.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed
    that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle. The book stirred Northern abolitionists to
    increase their protests against the Fugitive Slave Act, while Southerners criticized the book as an
    attack on the South.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Douglas introduced a
    bill in Congress on January 23, 1854,
    that would divide the area into two
    territories: Nebraska in the north and
    Kansas in the south. The bill
    would repeal the Missouri Compromise
    and establish popular sovereignty for both territories.
    both territories.
  • Dread Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott’s slave master had brought him from the slave state
    of Missouri to live for a time in free territory and in the free state of Illinois. Eventually
    they returned to Missouri. Scott believed that because he had lived in free territory, he
    should be free. The Supreme Court ruled that African Americans were not and could never be
    citizens. Thus, Dred Scott had no right even to file a lawsuit and remained enslaved.
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Neither wanted slavery in the territories,
    but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas believed deeply in
    popular sovereignty. Lincoln, on the other hand, believed that slavery
    was immoral. However, he did not expect individuals to give up
    slavery unless Congress abolished slavery with an amendment. Douglas won the Senate seat.
  • John Brown’s raid/Harpers Ferry

    Brown secretly obtained financial backing from several
    prominent Northern abolitionists. On the night of October 16, 1859,
    he led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia
    (now West Virginia). His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there
    and start a general slave uprising.
  • Abraham Lincoln becomes president

    Lincoln appeared to be moderate
    in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also
    tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “interfere
    with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves.” Nonetheless, many
    Southerners viewed him as an enemy
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Mississippi soon followed South Carolina’s lead, as did
    Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Delegates from the secessionist states met in
    Montgomery, Alabama, where they formed the Confederate
    States of America, or Confederacy. They also drew up a
    constitution that closely resembled that of the United
    States. The most important
    difference was that it “protected and recognized” slavery
    in new territories.
    The Confederates then elected Jefferson Davis as president.
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    An island in Charleston harbor. Lincoln decided to neither abandon Fort Sumter nor reinforce it. He would
    merely send in “food for hungry men.” At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, Confederate batteries
    began thundering away to the cheers of Charleston’s citizens. The deadly
    struggle between North and South was under way.
  • Battle at Gettysburg

    Confederate soldiers led by A. P. Hill encountered
    several brigades of Union cavalry under the command of John Buford. The three-day battle produced staggering losses: 23,000 Union men and 28,000
    Confederates were killed or wounded. Total casualties were more than 30 percent.
    Despite the devastation, Northerners were enthusiastic about breaking “the
    charm of Robert Lee’s invincibility.”
  • Battle at Antietam

    The clash proved to be the bloodiest
    single-day battle in American history, with casualties
    totaling more than 26,000. The next day, instead of pursuing
    the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly
    ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result,
    Lincoln removed him from command
  • Battle of Bull Run

    The first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three months
    after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run, just 25 miles from
    Washington, D.C. The battle was a seesaw affair. Confederate
    reinforcements helped win the first Southern victory. Fortunately for the Union,
    the Confederates were too exhausted to follow up their victory with an attack on
    Washington. Still, Confederate morale soared.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    he proclamation did not free any slaves immediately because it applied only
    to areas behind Confederate lines, outside Union control. Nevertheless, for many,
    the proclamation gave the war a moral purpose by turning the struggle into a fight
    to free the slaves. It also ensured that compromise was no longer possible.
  • Conscription

    a draft that forced men to serve in the army
  • Income Tax

    a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income.
  • Battle at Vicksburg

    Union general Ulysses S. Grant
    fought to take Vicksburg, one of the two remaining Confederate strongholds on
    the Mississippi River. Vicksburg itself was particularly important because it rested
    on bluffs above the river from which guns could control all water traffic. The Confederate command of Vicksburg asked Grant for terms of surrender.
    The city fell on July 4. The Union had achieved another
    of its major military objectives, and the Confederacy was cut in two.
  • Gettysburg address

    a ceremony was held to dedicate
    a cemetery in Gettysburg. The speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection
    of individual states; it was one unified nation.
  • Sherman’s March

    Sherman began
    his march southeast through
    Georgia to the sea, creating a
    wide path of destruction. His
    army burned almost every house
    in its path and destroyed livestock
    and railroads. By mid-November he had burned most of Atlanta. After reaching the ocean,
    Sherman’s forces—followed by 25,000 former slaves—turned north to help Grant
    “wipe out Lee.”
  • Surrender at Appomattox Court House

    Lee and
    Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. At Lincoln’s
    request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them
    home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. Officers were
    permitted to keep their side arms. Within a month all remaining Confederate
    resistance collapsed. After four long years, the Civil War was over.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    assassin, John Wilkes Booth—a 26-year-old actor and Southern sympathizer—
    then leaped down from the presidential box to the stage and escaped. Twelve days
    later, Union cavalry trapped him in a Virginia tobacco shed and shot him dead.
  • Thirteenth Amendment

    The U.S. Constitution now
    stated, “Neither slavery nor involuntary
    servitude, except as a punishment for crime
    whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
    shall exist within the United States.”