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Path to Equality Timeline

  • Jackie Robinson

    Jackie Robinson
    Jackie Robinson was an extraordinary athlete who broke the color barrier in Major League Baseball, playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers. Jackie Robinson's courage and talent paved the way for integration in professional sports.
  • Brown V. Board of Education

    Brown V. Board of Education
    In 1954 the Supreme Court issued one of its most far-reaching decisions when it struck down "separate but equal". The Rule of "separate but equal" allowed African American children to be segregated in different schools from white schools, as long as the schools for black children were equal to the ones provided for white children. In reality, African American schools were not equal to white schools. The Supreme Court decided that segregated schools are unconstitutional.
  • Murder of Emmett Till

    A 14 year old boy, Emmett Till was brutally murdered for supposedly whistling at a white women. Till was accused of touching the women, and making suggestive comments. Ms. Bryant later admitted to an interviewer that she had lied about those details. Bryant's husband and his half brother subsequently kidnapped and murdered Till. This devastating event forced the public to face the consequences of racism, and many young people joined the civil rights movement to fight for justice.
  • Rosa Parks Arrest

    Rosa Park was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger on a segregated bus in Montgomery, at the time racial segregation laws required African Americans to give up their seats to white passengers when the bus became full.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a non-violent civil rights protest during which African Americans refused to ride city buses. African Americans walk to work instead of taking public transportation. Some Churches raised funds for shared cars, or black taxi drivers. The Montgomery Bus Boycott worked effectively and was very successful. The Bus companies lost an estimate of $3,000 per day.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    Little Rock Central High School Recently accepted nine African American Students out of many applicants. This idea was explosive for the community, it was fraught with anger and bitterness. The little Rock Nine faced extreme hostility and opposition. In response, President Eisenhower sends armed troops to protect the students and enforce the law. Their Bravery and determination played a crucial role in the civil rights movement.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    The Civil rights Act of 1957 was aimed at protecting voting rights for African Americans. It created the U.S Commission on Civil rights and established a Civil Rights division within the Department of Justice, but its impact was limited due to certain amendments and challenges in enforcement.
  • Little Rock Schools Closed

    Governor Orval Faubus closed all Little rock public high schools, rather than allow integration to continue. This left many black and white students with no access to public education. Private schools opened their doors to white students, but this leaves black children on their own. African American students had to watch classes on television.
  • The Sit-In movement

    The Sit-In movement
    The sit-in movement became very popular across the south. Black students sat bravely and nonviolently at lunch counters, refusing to move or fight back when they were attacked.Their goal was to desegregate the public facilities. Sit-ins were very successful, it took an economic toll on the businesses they targeted. Slowly, segregation began to break down.
  • The Freedom rides

    Through the deep south young men and women boarded buses. They aimed to desegregate public transportation vehicles and facilities. The Freedom Riders were faced with violence, arrests, and hostility in their efforts to bring attention to and ultimately end segregation in public transportation. their efforts brought significant attention to the civil rights movement and led crucial changes in transportation segregation laws.
  • March on Washington

    The March of Washington for jobs and freedom was to advocate for civil and economic rights for African Americans. Participants aimed to address racial inequality, segregation, and economic injustice, pushing for legislative changes and creating awareness on these issues.
  • Birmingham Church Bombing

    The Birmingham church bombing in 1963 was a tragic event during the civil rights movement in the U.S. The bombing targeted the Baptist Church in Birmingham in Alabama. Four young African American were killed by a bomb planted by white supremacists.
  • Freedom Summer

    In the Summer in 1964, it was a campaign to increase African American voter registration in the South, where segregation and racial discrimination were prevalent. Many civil rights activists, went to Mississippi to register African American voters, and establish Freedom Schools. The initiative faced significant opposition and violence from the Klu Klux Klan.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a great example of change from The Civil Rights Act of 1957. The Civil Rights Act in 1957 enforcements were limited, and The Civil Rights Act of 1964 had a broader scope and significantly impacted civil rights in the U.S. It prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and lastly made employment discrimination illegal.
  • Selma to Montgomery March

    Selma to Montgomery March
    African Americans faced obstacles and intimidation for trying to register to vote. People marched from Selma and Montgomery as part of a protest for African Americans right to vote. This peaceful protest, became a vicious attack from the police, the police decided to attack the marchers and this became known as bloody Sunday. Violence did not stop the march, then a few weeks later, a judge ruled that the protesters had the right to use public highways. And the march continued.
  • Voting Right Acts

    Voting Right Acts
    The Voting Rights Act aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from their right to vote. It outlawed discriminatory voting practices, such as literacy tests and poll taxes, that had been used to disenfranchise minority voters
  • March Against Fear

    March Against Fear
    The March Against fear was a 220-mile journey meant to ease lingering concerns over voter registration. It started with James Meredith walking across his home state, a gunman shot him on the second day of the march. Other leaders arrived to finish the march for James.
  • Black Panther Party

    Black Panther Party
    The Black Panther aimed to enact change within African American communities and rejected the nonviolent approach, encouraging African Americans self defense. The Black Panther party goals included improving communities, fighting economic exploitation, and strengthening black pride. BPP members patrolled their neighborhoods, monitored law enforcement to discourage police brutality, and they also established medical clinics, provided adult education, free breakfast, and after school programs.
  • Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.

    James Earl shot Martin Luther King Jr., as he stood on the balcony of his motel room. For months after this devastating event, the nation was plunged into sorrow. Dr. King's death had a profound effect on the nation. The country lost a statesman who was deeply committed to the peaceful coexistence of all races and economic justice for all.
  • Fair Housing Act

    Fair Housing Act
    The Fair Housing Act is a significant piece of legislation in the United states that prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race. It aims to ensure equal housing opportunities for all individuals.
  • Black Arts and Culture Emerge

    The Black Arts and Culture is another great example of change with the cultural shifts. This new art formed a voice to African Americans who felt invisible and overlooked.
  • Election of Barack Obama

    The Election of Barack Obama was a great example of change. African Americans had to protest and fight for the right to vote, now in 2008 Obama, an African American male, got elected for President of the United States. In 1965 there was only six African Americans in the House of Representatives, now there are 49. Obama's election as the nation's first black president was a milestone in the fight for equality.
  • Black Lives Matter Movement

    From the death of Trayvon Martin and other unarmed African Americans BLM seeks to draw attention to problems in the American justice system and to patterns of racism and inequality in American Life. Its goal is to campaign against racial injustice and inequality.