Civil rights movement

Civil Rights Movement

  • White Primary is abolished in Georgia

    White Primary is abolished in Georgia
    Blacks were guaranteed the right to vote in general elections but the US Constitution was no specific enough and Georgia found a loophole. Blacks were banned from voting in the primary elections. Georgia was a one-party state meaning by the time the general election came the winner was already chosen in the primary. This was used after the Civil War to keep blacks from voting.
  • Continued White Primary is abolished in Georgia

    Continued White Primary is abolished in Georgia
    This system lasted until 1946 during the King v. Chapman case when the US Supreme Court ruled that the white primary system was unconstitutional. In 1946 the first primary was held that the blacks had a right to vote in.
  • Resources for White Primary

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    Civil Rights Movement

  • Integration of the Armed Forces

    Integration of the Armed Forces
    In 1948, President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order for desegregating in the armed forces. When you go to fight for war you are all fighting for one country so you could be treated equally. The ordered stated that “there shall be quality of treatment and opportunity for all people in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.”
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Brown v. Board of Education became a landmark decision as it stirred turmoil thought the nation. The United State Supreme Court declared state laws allowing segregated public school to be unconstitutional and was a violation of the fourteenth amendment. This case was brought to the Supreme Court after Oliver Brown and thirteen other parents were turned down from enrolling there kids in a “white school” because they were African Americans.
  • Continued Brown v. Board of Education continued

    Continued Brown v. Board of Education continued
    Oliver Brown was the first person listed in the lawsuit; therefore the case was named after him. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson case back in 1896 when separate but equal schools were allowed. African Americas were not treated equally anywhere through. For every one-hundred-and-fifty dollars spent on “white schools” only fifty dollars was spent on “black schools”.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Rosa Parks, a seamstress and an NAACP officer sat in the fifth row, the first row of the “colored section” section on the Montgomery bus on December 1, 1955. The bus began to fill up and her row was told to move so a white man could seat down. She refused to move and because of that she was arrested and fined ten dollars. Martin Luther King Jr. and Ralph Abernathy told everyone “don’t ride the buses to work, to town, to school, or anywhere on Monday.
  • Continued Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Continued Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    If you work take a cab, share a ride, or walk.” King and Abernathy were both arrested, four churches and the house of King and Abernathy were bombed but the boycott continued. The goal was to shutdown the bus system and to reach that goal they needed fifty percent of African Americans to boycott the bus, but to their surprise ninety-nine percent boycotted the bus. On November 23, 1956, the Supreme Court ruled in King’s favor, it declared segregated busing unconstitutional.
  • Resources for Rosa Parks

  • Change to Georiga's State Flag

    Change to Georiga's State Flag
    John Sammons Bell, Jefferson Lee Davis, and Willis Harden introduced the bill to “honor the centennial of the Civil War” by putting the old confederate flag on Georgia’s. It was said the honor the centennial of the Civil War but many others believed it was to symbolize Georgia’s resistance to integration. The Georgia flag of 1956 was called red and white bars similar to the confederate flag called stars and bars.
  • Resoucres for the Change to Georgia's state flag

  • Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"

    Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"
    In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court had ruled that racial segregation in public education violated the U.S. Constitution’s 14th amendment, because of the Brown v. Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas. Many school districts across the South tried to find various ways around the court’s ruling; Rock Central High School was a symbol of resistance to desegregation.
  • Continued Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"

    Continued Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"
    The group, Little Rock Nine, consisted of all African-American students who enrolled into Rock Central High School in 1957. The Little Rock Crisis was the event where the Governor of Arkansas, Orval Raubus, did not allow the nine black students to attend because of racially segregated schools. After the intervention of the president, Truman Eisenhower, the children were allowed.
  • Continued 2 Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"

    Continued 2 Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"
    On their first day of attending school, the Arkansas National Guard troops would not allow them to enter the school; they were also followed and threaten by mobs about lynching them.
    These students were selected to attend based on their literatce and criteria of excellent grades. The Little Rocks Nine was made up of Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jefferson Thomas, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Minnijean Brown, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Thelma Mothershed, and Melba Pattillo Beals.
  • Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta Bombed

    Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta Bombed
    The Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple, located in Atlanta, Georgia, was bombed on the morning of October 12, 1958. Although no one was injured one of Atlanta’s oldest and wealthiest synagogue was bombed with fifty sticks of dynamite taking out the side wall of the building. This building was targeted because Rabbi Jacob Rothschild was a friend of Martin Luther King Jr.’s and was also a civil rights activist. Five men were acquitted of the bombing.
  • Sibley Commissionn

    Sibley Commissionn
    Most state school systems in the South has refused to integrate so in 1995, Georgia voted to cut off funding from the state to any schools who integrated. The Sibley Commission was develop to figure out the problem with school integration. This commission was headed by John Sibley who interviewed Georgians about how they felt about integration and 2/3 people interviewed stated they would rather see the school close than to integrate them.
  • Sibley Commission

    Sibley Commission
    Many private schools were opened to help white students avoid integration. If parents were willing to pay for their children they could avoid integration. Private schools did not relieve on state money because the students funded the school.
  • Resoucres for Sibley Commission

  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    Martin Luther King Jr. along with many other people known as Freedom Riders set off on interstate buses into the South to test the Jim Crow laws and a call for change. The recent federal ruling stated that it was unconstitutional to segregate bus riders so the Freedoms Riders were not doing this illegal. A group of Blacks and Whites would load the buses headed for the South. At rest stops the Blacks would move to sit in the “whites only” section and vice versa.
  • Continued Freedom Rides

    Continued Freedom Rides
    The Freedom Riders were prepared for trouble from southerners who were against desegregation. At stops along the way the Freedom Riders would be ambushed by as many as 1,000 angry mobs of people. The mobs would go as far as setting a black rider on fire. Many riders received beating at the stops and the police wouldn’t arrive until well after, even though they were just a couple blocks away.
  • Continued 2 Freedom Rides

    Continued 2 Freedom Rides
    The Freedom Riders become national news when the nation heard about the lack of police protection and violence. The Freedom Rides would later play a role into helping pass the Civil Rights Act of 1965.
  • Integration of The University of Georgia

    Integration of The University of Georgia
    Charlayne Hunter-Gault and Hamilton Holmes came to UGA with a police escort because UGA Alumni and Georgia politician has said they would rather close UGA than have African Americans to attend. The governor refused to stop desegregation although during this election one of many things he has promised was to keep Georgia’s schools segregated. Hamilton Holmes graduated and became an orthopedic surgeon. Charlayne Hunter-Gault graduated and became a nationally known newspaper and TV reporter.
  • Rescoures for Integration of UGA

  • Albany Movement

    Albany Movement
    In 1955, The Supreme Court made it illegal to segregate interstate bus and train stations. The test this newly formed law, workers from NAACP and SNCC sat in the “whites only” section in Albany, Georgia’s bus station, on November 1961. The workers were arrested and jailed. In December, Freedom Riders sat in the “whites only” section in Albany, Georgia, and they were arrested and jailed as well.
  • Continued Albany Movement

    Continued Albany Movement
    This movement went on for month, at a point 500 plus people were in jail or out on bond, this included Martin Luther King Jr. There were no clear results. There was not a immediate desegregation of businesses and/or bus stations in Albany but a committee formed to develop the studies of the concerns of the African Americans in Albany.
  • Rescoures for Albany Movement

  • Birmingham, Alabama Protests

    Birmingham, Alabama Protests
    Martin Luther King Jr. was involved along with black high school citizens during the Birmingham Alabama protests. The protests were organized by the SCLC to bring attention to the treatment of African American and to see how unequally they were being treated in Birmingham, Alabama. After the jails were over capacity from the protesters police sent police dogs on them and sprayed fire hoses at them.
  • March on Washington D.C.

    March on Washington D.C.
    The March on Washington, D.C. was to receive civil and economic rights for African Americans. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech at the Lincoln Memorial, during the march on August 28, 1963. Over 300, 000 people came to march for freedom and jobs resulting in helping to pass the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965.
  • 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed

    16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed
    The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was a meeting-plave for civil rights leaders like Martub Luther King Jr. When a campaign about registering African Americans to vote in Birmingham, Alabama tensions rose. No one knew for sure who did it but people did see a white man getting out of a white and blue chevrolet car the day the bomb went off, placing a box under the steps of the church.
  • Continued 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed

    Continued 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed
    The bomb exploded at 10:22 a.m., killingDenise McNair, age eleven, Addie Mae Collins, age 14, Carole Robertson, age 14, and Cynthia Wesley, age 14. These four girls were attending Sunday school at the church along qith twenty-three others who were hurt by the bomb. Many civil rights activists blamed the Governor of Alabama, Georgia Wallace for the bomb because only a week beofre he told New York Times “to stop integration Alabama needed a “few first-class funerals””.
  • Continued 2 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed

    Continued 2 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed
    Later a witness identifiled a member of the Ku Klux Klan, Robert Chambliss, as the man who placed the bomb. He was arrested, charges with murder, and owning one-hundered-and – twenty-two sticka of dynmanit without a permit. On October 8th, 1963, Robert was found not guilty of murder but still had a six-month jail time for pssessing the dynamnite. In November of 1977, Robert Chambliss, now of age of seventy-three was found guilty and sentence to life inprison.
  • Continued 3 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed

    Continued 3 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed
    Robert Chambliss died in prison on October 29th, 1985. The FBI carried out the bombing to the Ku Klux Klan splinter group, the Cahaba Boys. Four mesn for respobible for the bombing, Robert Chamliss, who was dead, Harman Cash, also dead, Thomas Blanton, arrested and convicted, and Bobby Cherry, arrested and convicted.
  • Resources for 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed

  • John F. Kennedy Assassinated

    John F. Kennedy Assassinated
    The 35th president of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was assassinated on November 22, 1963. John F. Kennedy was in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas traveling with his wife, Jacqueline, Texas governor, John Connally, and his wife, Nellie, in was Presidential motorcade when he was fatally shot. A ten-month investigation concluded that John F. Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald for the reason of conspiracy.
  • Resources for John F. Kennedy assassinated

    Information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_John_F._Kennedy
    Picture: ttp://conspiracydebunked.com/jfk-assassination-conspiracy-theory-debunked/
  • Civil Rights Act 1964 Passed

    Civil Rights Act 1964 Passed
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 of signed by President Johnson in that same year in July. This bill gave the federal government the right to end segregation anywhere (mainly the South), t prohibited segregation in public places, each as playgrounds, buses, anywhere that received federal funding. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 covered basically every aspect a lawyer might try to find a loophole out of.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed

    Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed
    President Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. This act outlawed poll taxes and the literacy test that would used to assess people to see whether they were fit or unfit to vote.
  • Summerhill Race Riot

    Summerhill Race Riot
    Summer hill was a four day race riot in Atlanta that started when an African-American was shot for being accused of stealing a white police officer’s car. Stokley Carmichael, the leader of the SNCC, along with over one-hundred other people were arrested for the riot. Stokley Carmichael was accused for starting the riot. During the four day time period one was killed a twenty others were injured.
  • Martin Luther King Assassinated

    Martin Luther King Assassinated
    While visiting Memphis, Tennessee to lead a non-violent march, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated. He was standing on the balcony of his hotel room when he was shot by James Early Ray. His funeral was held at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta and was nationally televised. His body was then carried three-and-a-half miles with more than one-hundred-thousand mourners marching behind.
  • Resources for MLK assassination

  • All Georiga Schools Integrated

    All Georiga Schools Integrated
    The beginning of schools integration started with the Brown v. Board of Education. After this case was brought to the U.S. Supreme court, many white people tried to stop integration by saying they would rather see the schools close than to see them being integrated. When blacks started enrolling into the previously all white schools, mobs would form, threats would be made and people would break out in violence. Years went on and later all of Georgia's schools were successfully integrated.