Chronology Events Ap Euro Project

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In History
  • 1271

    Marco Polo travels to China

    Marco Polo travels to China
    A well-known traveler and explorer, Marco Polo, traveled to China along the Silk Road during the rule of the Yuan Dynasty. He wrote about his voyages and experiences in which he also described Chinese politics, economy, and culture. His writings became instantly famous around the world and aroused the desire of westerners to go to China while also majorly impacting the later on European voyages to the New World.
  • 1300

    Little Ice Age

    Little Ice Age
    The Little Ice Age was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period. The extremely chilling and below freezing climate caused countries in Europe to experience harsh and disastrous weather for many centuries.
  • 1309

    Babylonian Cpativity

    Babylonian Cpativity
    In the 14th century, Pope Clement V decided to move his court to Avignon, France. While the Papacy resided in France, the popes came under heavy influence of the wealth and luxury surrounding the French Kings. This further decided the Roman Catholic Church and later caused the split of the The Church along with a rise in the difference of thinking between church officials.
  • 1315

    Great Famine

    Great Famine
    It was a period of major crisis among European nations during the 1300’s, and caused massive crop failures, mass starvation, the spread of diseases and cannabislim, and the death of over 2 million people in just Europe alone. It also led to the end of the period of growth and prosperity in Europe during the 13th and 14th centuries while starting a period of major decline that would eventually lead to the Black Death and other pandemics.
  • 1337

    The Hundred Years War

    The Hundred Years War
    The Hundred Years' War was a series conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, over the succession to the French throne. The war eventually caused both nations to come close to the verge of bankruptcy, result in the death of a lot of people, and create major disaster among cities and rural areas in France, and the end of the struggle by England towards the French Throne.
  • 1346

    Beginning of the Black Death

    Beginning of the Black Death
    During the middle and late 1300’s, rats carrying fleas infected with disease and bacteria came into contact with European Traders in Asia during which they hid into the European Merchants’ ships which then took them across the Indian Ocean and brought them into Europe. When the rats spread across Europe and came into contact with the residents, they infected them with incurable diseases and caused major plague outbreaks witnessed worldwide along with the death of over 60% of Europe’s population.
  • 1347

    Last Outbreak of the Bubonic Plague

    Last Outbreak of the Bubonic Plague
    Europe experienced a final major blow from the Black Plague when it ravaged through the streets of Madagascar and comepletely destroyed every living thing on the island. However, Europe felt a sense of relief knowing that the Plague was now no where near the continent and eventually this led to a more prosperous time for all European a nations.
  • 1358

    Jacquerie Uprising

    Jacquerie Uprising
    A peasant revolt in France during the early spring in 1358 carried out by peasents who were furious about the increase in taxes.It was the beginning of the end for traditional peasant life in Western Europe
  • 1378

    The Great Schism

    The Great Schism
    The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church in which three men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope. It resulted in the creation of two separate churches that had previously been unified under one church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • 1381

    English peasants revolt

    English peasants revolt
    The English peasants rebelled all across England because of the increased taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years War, and the Black Death along with the dispute over local authority and control in London.
  • 1440

    Invention of the printing press

    Invention of the printing press
    The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany just before the start of the Protestant reformation and is responsible for paving the way for mass media and the spread of ideas across Europe during the 15th century.
  • Oct 18, 1469

    Isabella and Ferdinand marriage

    Isabella and Ferdinand marriage
    A marriage dedicated to restoring the glory and prestige of Spain as a nation along with the idea of re Catholicize Spain amongst the midst of different religions such as Islam and Judaism.This leads to a cooperative reign which will unite all of Spain and strengthen the country along with the Catholic religion for the time being.
  • 1478

    Beginning of the Spainish Inquisition

    Beginning of the Spainish Inquisition
    The office of the Holy tribunal is established in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella originally to find and persecute heretics and re catholicize the nation of Spain. However, soon the inquisition began to target Other religions such as Muslims and Jews living in Spain and resulted in a bloody massacre of religious groups other than Catholics in the Spanish Empire.
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Columbus Lands in the Americas

    Columbus Lands in the Americas
    After getting approval from Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, Christopher Columbus set sail for the New World. Although he intended to reach Asia, Columbus' voyage brought him to the San Salvador islands in the Bahamas. This discovery helped influence many later European sailors and their voyages along with the increased funding by the kings and Emperors of their respective nations, while also bringing in immense wealth and new discoveries.
  • 1494

    Invasion of Italy by Charles vii of France

    Invasion of Italy by Charles vii of France
    Charles led an invading force to Italy in order to control the massive trading peninsula that was controlled by italian city states.The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.Charles won and completely decimated the Italian City states who were of no use after the Italian wars.
  • 1494

    The Habsburg-Valois wars

    The Habsburg-Valois wars
    Better known as the Italian wars it was a conflict that lasted about 70 years and decimated the Italian peninsula. The Italian Wars were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1517

    Martin Luther writes the 95 theses

    Martin Luther writes the 95 theses
    This officially starts the The Reformation, specifically referred to as the Protestant Reformation, It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Luther in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
  • Jan 28, 1521

    Diet of Worms

    Diet of Worms
    The diet of worms was an event that took place after the hanging of the 95 thesis by Martin Luther who was invited to argue his case and apologise to the church. Much to his dismay, The Holy Roman Emperor excommunicated him for here but this paved the way for the Protestant Reformation to take hold.
  • Aug 13, 1521

    Cortes Conquers Mexico

    Cortes Conquers Mexico
    After getting approval from the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Hernan Cortes set sail for Mexico. He immeadiately started making plans for attacking the Aztec Empire, and after a long and bloody three-month siege, the Spanish forces led by his command captured Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec empire and imprisoned King Cuauhtemoc of the Aztec empire.
  • Aug 29, 1526

    Turkish victory at Mohacs

    Turkish victory at Mohacs
    The Ottoman Empire defeats the Hungarian kingdom decisively and Hungary is portioned between 3 states
  • Nov 15, 1532

    Pizarro Conquers Incan Empire

    Pizarro Conquers Incan Empire
    After getting approved by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to visit the Incan Empire, Pizzarro gathered around 120 Spanish conquistadors and sailed to Peru. He invited King Atahuallap of the Incan Empire to visit and meet him, but instead the king and his unarmed men were met with fierce arrows and merciless attacks by the Spaniards. The Incan King was captured and later strangled to death, and the poorly guarded Incan fortresses eventually fell to Pizzaro's army.
  • 1533

    Ivan the Terrible

    Ivan the Terrible
    Ivan the Terrible was the prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and is described as a very intellectual and unique figure. During his reign, Russia grew from a country on a single continent to a multi continental state with a very strong military and government system. He basically changed Russia by making it transform into an major and strong empire.
  • 1534

    Henry VIII ends papal authority in England

    Henry VIII ends papal authority in England
    Henry claims to be the sovereign of all church authority in England and removes the pope as the head of authority (all because he couldn’t get a divorce) with the supremacy act. This leads to the creation of the New Anglican Church followed or lead by Protestant ideas of that time and eventually lead to the separation of catholics and protestants in england.
  • 1543

    The Scientific Revolution

    The Scientific Revolution
    The Scientific Revolution was a time period that witnessed the emergence of modern science and the advancements in the fields of math and science during the 14 and 1500’s all the way up to the 16 and 1700’s. This time period revolutionized the way of thinking and changed the perspective of the people towards life in general and education.
  • 1545

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    The Catholic Church’s response to the Reformation, and was highly important for its sweeping decrees on self-reform and for its dogmatic definitions that clarified virtually every doctrine contested by the Protestants.
  • Nov 17, 1558

    Reign of Elizabeth I

    Reign of Elizabeth I
    Also known as The virgin Queen, Elizabeth I was the last monarch of House Tudor. Her reign included the religious settlements that allowed for peace among Catholics and protestants in the British Empire, and laid the foundations the Church of England and what it has evolved into today. Her reign also consisted of advancements and the flourishing of English Drama.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
    The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion. It led to many Protestant revolts and the mass migration of the Hugenots population to safe havens in other countries.
  • Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    Treaty between the Holy Roman Rmperor Charles V and the schmalkaldic league which allowed rulers to choose either Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism as the official confession of their state. The signing of this treaty in the imperial city of Augsburg officially ended the religious struggles between religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire.
  • England Defeats Dpanish Armada

    England Defeats Dpanish Armada
    In 1858, The Spanish Armada was sent out by King Ferdinand of Spain to invade England. However, the long reign of the Spanish Empire on the worlds known seas came to a bitter end and when England successfully defended the English Channel and in turn attacked and completely demolished the once "invincible Armada". This victory also helped create a much needed sense of nationalism among the English who continued to dominate the Seas and be one of the biggest and best naval powers in the world.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    A French royal decree, signed by King Henry IV of France, advocating for and establishing religious toleration for the hugenots or protestants in France. It granted freedom of worship and equality for the Hugenots while also ending the wars of religion.
  • Rule of Oliver Cromwell

    Rule of Oliver Cromwell
    Oliver Cromwell was an English military leader who served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England from 1653 until his death. After winning the civil war and replacing the monarch King Charles 1, Oliver Cromwell comes to power but fails to succeed on his original path and eventually turns into a power hungry constitutional monarch with a set of strict and harsh laws.
  • Reign of Henry 1V in France

    Reign of Henry 1V in France
    Henry the IV was King of Navarre from 1589 to 1610 and was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. He is most notably responsible for promulgating the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over the English government. It eventually led to the creation of the Commonwealth of England and later the Protectorate led by Oliver Cromwell along with the end of the reign of King Charles 1.
  • Reign of Louis IV

    Reign of Louis IV
    Louis IV was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. He was responsible for leading the centralization of power during the age of absolutism along with the elimination of feudalism in France during the 18th century.
  • English Restoration

    English Restoration
    The English Restoration under Charles II includes both the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and the period of several years afterwards in which a new political settlement was established. It highlighted the move from the rule of Oliver Cromwell back to the English monarchy.
  • Reign of Peter the Great

    Reign of Peter the Great
    Peter the Great was a Russian Monarch who was responsible for expanding the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power. while also leading a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, westernized, and based on The Enlightenment.
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
    The Edict of Fontainebleau was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. This officially removed the liberties, rights and freedoms of practicing religion that the cuentos had received in France, and clearly showed the hatred and cruelty that France was bestowing on the the huguenots who Louis believed were heretics.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange. It also led o the creation of the English Bill of Rights along with the restoration religious freedom in England during the 17th century.
  • Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century by bringing in ideas of freedom and liberty among the masses through authors such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbs, Voltaire etc. The enlightenment ideas highlighted the condition of the governments of Europe and highly influenced the political system of countries such as France and England who went through major reforms in order to become more enlightened.
  • War of Spanish Succession

    War of Spanish Succession
    The War of the Spanish Succession as a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II.After recognising the unbalance of power that would occur if the heir to the throne was to be crowned, other empires decided to claim parts of the spanish Empire which eventually led to a series of armed conflicts before the decision of Louis having no prejudice and favorability to France was made/
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    The Seven Years War was an armed conflict between England and France mainly due to the conflicting rivalry that had been going on for years. With the signing of the treaty of Paris, The seven Years war ended with france loosing upper Canada and Louisiana along with other territories to Spain, British and other empires. France also suffered financially and the result of the war removed France from the new world while also providing the British with extensive territory and more power
  • Reign of Catherine the Great

    Reign of Catherine the Great
    Catherine the Great is one of the longest ruling female rulers of Russia, and her reignsingidied the revival of the glory and military power and strength and Russia once had. Under her reign, Russia was revitalised; it grew larger and stronger, and was recognised as one of the great powers of Europe.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    The American Revolution was a colonial revolt in the 1700’s in which the American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies fought for and later won independence from Great Britain. The revolution resulted in the creation of an independent Staten combined of the thirteen colonies that represented one of the first democratic-republican governments in the world, and this also helped influence the French Revolution along with other nations who aspired to attain the libertarian and democratic principles.
  • Watts Patent Steam Engine

    Watts Patent Steam Engine
    In 1781, James Watt (a local chemist) introduced his version of a steam engine that was specifically modified by him to avoid wasting energy and create more power and force. His version of the steam engine was a instant success, and after receiving financial aide from his partner Matthew Bolton, his steam engine hit the market. James Watt's version of the steam engine was a groundbreaking innovation in the era if the industrial revolution, and allowed factories to be built everywhere in Britian.
  • Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

    Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
    Common Sense was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775 advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the Thirteen Colonies. The content of the pamphlet publicized the ideas of liberty and freedom that the Patriots carried and symbolized and it also marshaled moral and political arguments to encourage common people in the Colonies to fight for egalitarian government and eventually became one of the founding documents that helped inspire revolutionary ideas in the US.
  • Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations
    The Wealth of Nations was a hooky written by a Scottish philosopher and trade expert on the critique and upend of merchants liam, describing what the ideals of a perfect economic state looked like and how it could be achievable. The Wealth of Nations became instantly popular and the book was considered to be a birthmark for the era of modern capitalism and economics in which it single handed lay guided the economic policies and trade actions that countries took to gain and accumulate wealth.
  • Ratification of the US Constituion

    Ratification of the US Constituion
    The ratification of the constituion was a process in which each state allowed for the constitution to be amended to fit a standard that would allow every state in the US to them follow one fundamental set of laws that were described and highlighted by the constitution. This led to the creation of a country that was ruled by one government under one set of laws that were subjected to and agreed to by all states in the US.
  • The Storming of the Bastille

    The Storming of the Bastille
    The Stormjng of the Bastille was an event that took place befoe the French Revolution in which a riot carried out by French revolutionaries in Paris in an attempt to show their level of hatred and anger towards the monarchy by capturing one of the top most symbols of the French Monarchy and Nobility. The storming of the Bastille showed how powerful and strong the revolutionary movement was, and this unified all of France under one goal of brining freedom and liberty to France.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799. It consisted of the majority of the French population along with the he support of some of the wealthy families rebelling against the Crown and nobility. The French Revolution started the reign of Napoleon Bonomarte amen his military dictatorship while also reviving France from the constant decades of debt and increasing taxes.
  • WallstoneCrafts Vind. Of Rts . of Women

    WallstoneCrafts Vind. Of Rts . of Women
    A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was one of the first and earliest feminist writings supporting and advocating for the rights, liberties, equality and freedom for all women. This book triggered a massive wave of feminist movements that rose in England and across Europe and the UnitedStates during the later 18th century, and paved the way for a new Andrew different way of thinking.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The Execution of King Louis XVI of France via the guillotine was a major event that took place during the French Revolution, and resulted in the end of the reign of the French Monarchy in France. The execution also proudly showed off the power of the revolutionists, and was a key event in completely eliminating the reign of the French Crown in France forever. It also marked the beginning of the power hungry struggle by people like Robespierre who wanted to rule as constitutional monarchs.
  • REIGN of Terror

    REIGN of Terror
    Reign of Terror is a time period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established and a constitutional monarchy was created by the help of Robespierre and the rest of the French revolutionists. The Reign of terror was a very brutal and violent time period during which revolutionists cleansed France from the so called “traitor” royals and nobles who supported the crown. highlighted the bloody extent to which the revolutionary movement was willing to go to.
  • Napoleon invades Russia

    Napoleon invades Russia
    On June 1812, Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army that hadn’t been their distant rival and a threat to France’s newly growing empire under Bonoparte. The Russian campaign was a failure, and the extreme climates affected the condition of the formidable army Napoleon cammanded, and the army slowly grew weaker until they were unable to fight. The Russians eventually drove out Napoleon, making him suffer his first major defeat.
  • Napoleon defeated and Exiled

    Napoleon defeated and Exiled
    After escaping from Saint Helena and returning to France, Napoleon once again stirs up the crowd in his favor and hand support from the French army who help him attack and regain control of France. With France once again in the hands of Napoleon, the allies assemble armies to defeat him. Napoleon leads his army across Austria to fight at Waterloo against the British army. After suffering major blows in the battle and being alerted of another allied forces attack, Napoleon retreats and surrenders
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of ambassadors of European states including Austria, Russia, Britain, France and Prussia. The congress was held to decide what type of government France was to return to after the fall and imprisonment of Napoleon Bonaparte. After a series of talks and discussions, the congress of Vienna ended with France receiving a new King who would pave the way for conservative ideas in order to reduce the threat of another revolution based on liberalism ideas.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The Battle of Waterloo was a battle fought between Napoleon Bonaparte and his French army against the allied forces of Britain, Belgium and Prussia led by the Duke of Wellington. Napoleon and his army were defeated and Napoleon was forced to retreat and eventually surrender before being sent off to ST Helena in exile. The battle of Waterloo resulted in the end of Napoleon Bonaparte's reign as the ruler of France, and also reflected the power of the allied forces when combined together.
  • Industrial Revolution Years

    Industrial Revolution Years
    The Industrial Revolution was the transition from the putting out system and the cottage working system to new manufacturing processes in England during the 18th and 19th century. The Industrial revolution occurred due to the need for more production of goods and resources, and this eventually led to the development of more factories which later had towns and cities centered around them. This time period saw to the development of urbanized cities with newly emerging classes of the middle class.
  • Reign Of Charles X

    Reign Of Charles X
    The last Bourbon king of France and a staunch conservative. He tried to restore the Ancient Regime and failed. He also tried to remove many of the changes achieved by the previous rulers and was again unsuccessful. He invaded Algeria as well and was ousted by the July revolutions of 1830,
  • Stephenson's Rocket

    Stephenson's Rocket
    Stephenson's Rocket was an early steam locomotive initially used in Britain during the industrial revolution as a means of transportation. Stephenson's rocket was a huge key factor in the industrial revolution, for it was responsible for the transportation of goods and later on people to various areas in the country in an efficient, reliable and less time consuming way. It led to easier transportation and was the model for later innovations in the railway business & the transportation business
  • French Invasion of Algeria

    French Invasion of Algeria
    The French invade Algeria and successfully capture it, under Charles the Tenth, after a French ambassadors ship is attacked. This marks the beginning of French rule of Algeria which will last until the 1900's and also the beginning of the pacification of the colony which will last until 1857.
  • English Reform Act

    English Reform Act
    An English bill that reformed the English Parliament and expanded voting rights to thousands of English citizens. The bill was based around the inclusion of new industrial era cities and boroughs into Parliament and therefore giving those citizens actual representation
  • Great Irish Famine

    Great Irish Famine
    A four year period between 1845-1849 when a lot of the Irish crop of potatoes was infected by a fungus known as "The Blight". The Irish during this period relied disproportionately heavily on potatoes as both a food source and source of income. This event helped encourage the British government to repeal the corn acts, which artificially inflated the price of grain.
  • Reign of Louis Phillippe

    Reign of Louis Phillippe
    Louis Philippe I ( originally the The Duke of Orleans and heir to the French throne) fled from France during the french revolution in an attempt to escape execution and arrest. After living in exile for 21 years, he returned to France as their new King after Napoleon Bonaparte's imprisonment in 1830. Initially, Louis' reign was popular among the people including the working class and the bourgeoisie, but the conditions of the economy started to deteriorate and he got less and less popular.
  • Reign of Napoleon III

    Reign of Napoleon III
    After the Revolution of 1848, in 1850, Napoleon III was elected president of the Second Republic. He served in that position until 1852, when he was declared emperor of France due to the want for a return to the golden ages of France among the French people. However, in 1873 he was deposed and sent to England where he eventually died.
  • Great Exhibition in London

    Great Exhibition in London
    The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition, was a exhibition showcasing the work of the the industries of nations from all over the world including France, Spain, Germany and other countries including England itself.It was held at the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, and was a major key event in the era of the industrial revolution because it gave the chance for countries to come together to share latest and new ideas & innovations.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    It was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states provoked by Otto von Bismarck’s plan to create a unified German Empire. After attempting to destroy Bismarck’s plan of unifying Prussia and expanding their territory, War was waged and eventually resulted in the French loosing and Napoleon III loosing his popularity and success among the French and across Europe.
  • Opening of Panama Canal

    Opening of Panama Canal
    After a long and hard fought battle to gain control over the extremely strategically beneficial Panama Canal, the us and panamian govt officially opened it to the public and traffic on August 15, 1914 in an attempt to promote neutrality and peace.
  • World War 1

    World War 1
    World War I, also known as the First World War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918 mainly due to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914.
  • Assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand

    Assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand
    The Assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 was caused by strains in the relations between the countries of Austria and Serbia, and the hatred eventually led to the assissonation and eventually war between the 2 nations becoming a primary reason for WW1.
  • The sinking of the Lusitania

    The sinking of the Lusitania
    The sinking of the Cunard ocean liner RMS Lusitania occurred on Friday, 7 May 1915 during the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against the United Kingdom which had implemented a naval blockade of Germany.
  • US enters WWI

    US enters WWI
    On April 6, 1917, the U.S. joined its allies--Britain, France, and Russia to fight in World War I. Under the command of Major General John J. Pershing, more than 2 million U.S. soldiers fought on battlefields in France despite the many domestic efforts to make the foreign policy neutral and staying out of the war a primary goal in the US
  • The Bolshevik Revolution

    The Bolshevik Revolution
    The Bolshevik revolution ( also known as the Russian revolution) was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union led by Vladimir Lenin and the Marxist/socialist party.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end and ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers by bringing in the terms of Germany’s surrender and making plans for avoiding any future conflict at all costs and a new post WW1 world.
  • Mousillini takes power in Italy

    Mousillini takes power in Italy
    Italian dictator Benito Mussolini rose to power in the wake of World War I as a leading proponent of Facism. Originally a revolutionary Socialist, he forged the paramilitary Fascist movement in 1919 and became prime minister in 1922. His military regime included radical nationalism, militarism, facsimile and totalitarianism all brought together into the one party system that controlled all of Italy.
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    The Dawes Plan was an attempt in 1924 to solve the World War I reparations problem that Germany had to pay, which had bedevilled international politics following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles by providing aid and means of ecomic revival and stability to Germany’s economy while also making them pay a substantial amount in order to make France happy and keep the international relations peaceful.
  • Stalin takes over the Soviet Union

    Stalin takes over the Soviet Union
    In the years following the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, Stalin rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union. His revolutionary idea logins were implemented immediately and changed the tide for Russian economy, military and technology. His goal of carrying out advancements in the field of technology, farming and agriculture, and military were being carried out rapidly, and his regime marked a new time period for Russia as it continued to develop into one of the strongest and advanced nations
  • Kellog Briand Pact

    Kellog Briand Pact
    The Kellogg–Briand Pact is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them"
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.During this time, the US stock market crashed, the banks were unable to pay off their debts which lead to their foreclosure, most of he population lost their jobs and income which led to extreme poverty along with other terrible events that occurred subsequently across Europe.
  • Japanese Invasion of Manchuria

    Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
    The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident. Their want for territorial control, dominance, and expansion along with their want to prove their position as a powerful nation led to their sudden and rapid expansion throughout China and Asia during the early 1930s.
  • Nationalist Socialist Party comes to power in Germany

    Nationalist Socialist Party comes to power in Germany
    Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), the National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi Party, grew into a mass movement and ruled Germany through totalitarian means from 1933 to 1945. The Party execellently and successfully used their message of radical nationalism to appeal to the German crowds who were desperately looking for economic revival. After promising them revival and a return of Germany’s rank in the world, Hitler and the socialist party won the hearts of the Germans.
  • Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

    Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
    Although Hitler lost the presidential election of 1932, he achieved his goals when he was appointed chancellor on 30 January 1933. On February 27, Hindenburg paved the way to dictatorship and war by issuing the Reichstag Fire Decree which nullified civil liberties. His ideology of racial superiority, dominance and strength that went hand in hand with the the nation of Germany gave their image a sort of radicalization and popularism which went well with the defeated and eager to fight Germans.
  • Germany withdraws from the League of Nations

    Germany withdraws from the League of Nations
    In 1933, Hitler ordered the German delegates to leave the Disarmament Conference in Geneva, and he withdrew from the League of Nations. He gave as his excuse the fact that Germany was already disarmed, while other countries were refusing to disarm. This was seen as a direct refusal to continue peaceful relations and negotiations by the Germans while also showing how the League of Nations was completely useless and powerless.
  • Moussilini invades Ethiopia

    Moussilini invades Ethiopia
    Going against the main guidelines but of the League of Nations, one of Mussolini's goals was to create an Italian empire in North Africa. In 1912 and 1913, Italy had conquered Libya. Moussilini had adopted Adolf Hitler's plans to expand German territories by acquiring all territories it considered German, and this led to an effort to colonize Ethiopia. Italy’s strong army was able to successfully invade and control Ethiopia and its nearby regions.
  • Germany invades the Rhineland

    Germany invades the Rhineland
    The Rhineland formed a natural barrier to its neighbour and rival, France. One of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles was that the Germans would not be able to keep military forces in a 50km stretch of the Rhineland. Hitler resented this term as it made Germany vulnerable to invasion. Knowing certainly that war was an outcome and that taking the Rhine land would be necessary in order to prevent any attacks from the French and british, Hitler ordered the invasion of the strategic location in 36
  • Japan invades China

    Japan invades China
    The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 9, 1945. It was a mass genocide as thousands of chinese civilians were raped and killed by the army. However, the Chinese army had recognized the intentions of the Japanese army and didn’t resist but instead appealed to the League of Nations.
  • Munich conference

    Munich conference
    The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
  • Nazi-Soviet non aggression pact

    Nazi-Soviet non aggression pact
    The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact, the German–Soviet Non-aggression Pact or the Nazi German–Soviet Pact of Aggression, was a neutrality pact between Nazi Germany which guarenteed that neither country would take any military action against each other. It was also geographically strategic for the Nazis who wouldn’t have to fight a war on two fronts.
  • Germany’s invasion of poland

    Germany’s invasion of poland
    Nazi leader Adolf Hitler claimed the massive invasion was a defensive action, but Britain and France were not convinced. On September 3, they declared war on Germany, init9iating World War II. To Hitler, the conquest of Poland would bring Living space for the Germans. However, it was seen as an act of defiance against the League of Nations and Treaty of Versailles, and convinced France and Britain to become allies to fight against the newly and rapidly expanding and militarizing German army.
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany

    Britain and France declare war on Germany
    After witnessing the invasion of Austria and Poland by the newly developed and militarized German army, the French and British decided to align in order to defeat this radical enemy that was a jeapordy and threat to almost every nation in Europe due to its want for territorial expansion and militarization at all costs. Recogniding he potential of destruction at the hands of the German state, an alliance wasn’t necessary as war hadn’t already started.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    After the axis powers surrendered which ended WWII, the 3 supreme nations of Great Britain, the US and the Soviet Union to discuss post WWII problems including the reparations of European Nations, division of Germany between the 4 main allied nations, and the split between eastern and western Europe. The Soviets promised free elections in eastern Europe, western Europe stayed capitalist & eastern Europe turned communist, and Germany divided into 4 parts to be controlled by France, SU, UK and UK.
  • Potsdam conference

    Potsdam conference
    The postal conference was the third in a series of conference held between the 3 supreme nations of Great Britain, US and Soviet Union. This conference mainly focused on the division of Europe based on the spread of communism and capitalism, and was the deciding factor for the separation of eastern and Western Europe. The Soviets led by Stalin supervised eastern European nations including Czechoslovakia and Poland while the US supervised Western Europe including France and the UK.
  • End of WWII in Europe

    End of WWII in Europe
    After the German troops were defeated inside the heart of the Rhineland, the axis powers decided to surrender. Hitler commuted suicide and the allies had retaken France and most of Germany, and the surrender of the axis powers at the allied head quarters in France was enacted on May 8th 1945 . This marked the end of WWII and the Nazi regime in Eastern Europe, anyone the world was curious as to what lay ahead for the world post WWII.
  • Nuremburg Trials

    Nuremburg Trials
    After the end of WWII, the question of responsibility for the devastation caused in WWII and the horrific treatment of the Jew's at the hands of the Nazi's arose. The allied powers then set up military tribunals under international and war laws that put the major Nazi officials on trial for their crimes against the Jew's and minorities during WWII.
  • Founding of Israel

    Founding of Israel
    After the Jew's were massacred at the hands of the Axis in WWII, the question of an independent Jewish nation arose. Recognising what the headband suffered through, the allies including the UK favoured the creation of a state run by and for the Jewish population in the world in order to prevent another massacre. In may 1948, the British govt gave the Jew's a designated homeland on the land formerly owned by the defeated Ottomans after WWII, and this nation was called the state of Israel.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    At the end of WWII, European nations' economies suffered major blows and we're left in ruins, and the people abandoned their hopes for economic revival. The US stepped in and decided to help them by sending them over $13 billion in economic assistance. This was called the materials plan, and it's goal was to rebuild Europe's economies and and rebuild their trust in their economies. The Marshall Plan helped revive their economies and ensure steady growth.
  • Creation of Nato

    Creation of Nato
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was created in 1949 by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to align and protect each other against the Soviets and their want for expansion. NATO was the first peacetime military alliance the United States entered into outside of the Western Hemisphere, and was the deciding factor that ensured the survival of capitalism in Europe.
  • Berlin airlift

    Berlin airlift
    After the Soviets decided to carry out a blockade dividing eastern and western Berlin and build a war separating the two sides in an attempt to drive out the British, French and US from Berlin, the US responded by sending supplies and resources via airplanes to the blockaded Eastern Berlin which was under Soviet control. This was seen as a peaceful and humanitarian response to the Soviet aim at achieving control of the entire capital of Berlin and bringing it under communist influence.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea while the north was backed by Soviet Russia and their goals for communist expansion and the south backed by the US and their goals of ensuring the survival of capitalism in South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea backed by the Soviets and Chinese invaded South Korea. The us helped their ally by sending military help and aid, and eventually the war ended with major casualties and minor to no territorial gain for both
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    As a response to the formation of the NATO alliance system, The Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw Pact. It included countries like Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, east Germany, Hungary etc. This was an attempt to ensure that communism survive and thrive in eastern Europe, Andri black any western influence.
  • Building of the berlin wall

    Building of the berlin wall
    During the early years of the Cold War, West Berlin was a geographical loophole through which thousands of East Germans fled to the democratic West. In response, the Communist East German authorities built a wall that totally encircled West Berlin. It was an attempt to block western influence from the soviet bloc, and an attempt to create a physical blockade to drive the West out of the rest of Germany.
  • Cuban missile crisis

    Cuban missile crisis
    When reports of the Soviets housing nuclear weapons in Cuba emerged, the us took this as a direct threat to the American homeland due to Cuba's extremely close and vital location along with a violation of the Soviets promise to stay in Eastern Europe. The US responded by throwing military action, and this made the Soviets remove their weapons and avoid conformation that would result in nuclear war and the possibility of total devastation.
  • OPEC Oil Embargo

    OPEC Oil Embargo
    During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposed an embargo against the United States in retaliation for the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military and to gain leverage in the post-war peace negotiations. It was an attempt to make the US back out of their agreement to aid and support Israel in the war.
  • Helsinki Accords

    Helsinki Accords
    The Helsinki Final Act was an agreement signed by 35 nations that concluded the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held in Helsinki, Finland. This gathering was an attempt at RE uniting Eastern and Western Europe after the end of the cold war, and was successful in removing the visions implemented by the Soviets and US in Europe. It marked the end of conflict and the start of peace and prosperity in Europe.
  • Fall of communism in Eastern Europe

    Fall of communism in Eastern Europe
    Revolutions and rebellions against Soviet authority in countries all across eastern Europe including Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania and east Berlin along with the failure of a communist-led coup d'état against Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union ended the party's control of the military and government and weekend their grasp over eastern Europe. Eventually, poor economic and social conditions in Eastern Europe caused many countries to leave the Warsaw pact and Soviet influence