Chapter 7 Section 2 Timeline

  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

  • Macy’s

    is a mid-range to upscale chain of department stores owned by American multinational corporation Macy's, Inc. The original Macy's store in downtown Haverhill, Massachusetts, established in 1851 to serve the mill industry employees of the area.
  • Gustavus Swift

    He founded a meat-packing empire in the Midwest during the late 19th century, over which he presided until his death. He is credited with the development of the first practical ice-cooled railroad car which allowed his company to ship dressed meats to all parts of the country and even abroad, which ushered in the "era of cheap beef." (June 24, 1839 – March 29, 1903)
  • Elisha Otis

    Founder of the Otis Elevator Company, and inventor of a safety device that prevents elevators from falling if the hoisting cable fails. (August 3, 1811 – April 8, 1861)
  • Social Darwinism

    The theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. Now largely discredited, social Darwinism was advocated by Herbert Spencer and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform.
  • John D. Rockefeller

    He was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937)
  • Christopher Sholes

    Invented the first practical typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard still in use today. (February 14, 1819 – February 17, 1890)
  • Alexander Graham Bell

    He was a scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who invented the first practical telephone. (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)
  • Joel Tiffany

    Tiffany applied for and received a U.S, Patent on a refrigerated railroad car and also founded the Tiffany Refrigerator Car Company. (1811-1893)
  • Thomas Edison

    He was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931)
  • F.W. Woolworth

    "He was the founder of F. W. Woolworth Company (now Foot Locker), an operator of discount stores that priced merchandise at five and ten cents. He pioneered the now-common practices of buying merchandise direct from manufacturers and fixing prices on items, rather than haggling. He was the first to use self-service display cases so customers could examine what they wanted to buy without the help of a salesman." (Wikipedia) (April 13, 1852 – April 8, 1919)
  • George Eastman

    Founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to make photography popular. (July 12, 1854 – March 14, 1932)
  • Andrew Carnegie

    He was a Scottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He also founded the Carnegie Steel Company. (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919)
  • Ottmar Mergenthaler

    He was a German-born inventor who has been called a second Gutenberg because of his invention of the Linotype machine, the first device that could easily and quickly set complete lines of type for use in printing presses. This machine revolutionized the art of printing. (May 11, 1854 – October 28, 1899)