Brown vs the Board

  • Dred Scott, Plaintiff in Error v. John F. A. Sanford

    Dred Scott, Plaintiff in Error v. John F. A. Sanford
    The Supreme Court wouuldn't allow citizenship to black people, setting the stage for their treatment as second class citizens.
  • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

    Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
    The first black schools were created under the Freedmen’s Bureau. One of those schools was Howard University
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    Black Codes were the laws passed by southern states during the presidency of Andrew Johnson. These laws imposed restrictions on freedmen, such as taking away their right to vote, forbidding them to sit in on juries, and limiting their right to testify against white men. They were also not allowed to carry weapons in public places.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave Blacks basic economic rights to sue, and own property. The purpose of this law was to protect all persons in the United States.
  • The 14th Amendment to the Constitution is created

    The 14th Amendment overruled Dred Scott v. Sanford case. It guaranteed that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States, and that no state can take away privileges of citizens, deprive any person of life, liberty.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875

    The Civil Rights Act of 1875, prohibited discrimination in theaters, and other public places. It was the last Federal civil rights act passed until 1957.
  • Civil Rights Cases

    Civil Rights Cases
    The Supreme Court overturned the Civil Rights Act of 1875, and declared that the Fourteenth Amendment does not prohibit discrimination by private individuals or businesses.
  • Jim Crow

    Jim Crow
    Florida was the first state to enact requiring segregation in places of public accommodation. Eight other states followed Florida's lead by 1892.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    Homer A. Plessy challenged an 1890 Louisiana law that required separate train cars for Black Americans and White Americans. The Supreme Court said that separate but equal facilities for White and Black railroad passengers did not violate the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.
  • Thurgood Marshall is born in Baltimore, MD

  • Berea College v. Commonwealth of Kentucky

    The Supreme Court upheld a Kentucky law forbidding interracial teachings at all schools in the state.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded
    The NAACP became the primary tool for the legal attack on segregation, trying the Brown v. Board of Education case.
  • Gong Lum v. Rice

    In Gong Lum v. Rice the Supreme Court held that a Mississippi school district may require a Chinese-American girl to attend a segregated Black school rather than a White school.
  • NAACP begins challenging segregation

    in graduate and secondary schools.
  • State of Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada

    The Supreme Court gave avor to Lloyd Gaines, a black student who had been refused from going to the University of Missouri Law School
  • Thurgood Marshall named special counsel of the NAACP

  • Sipuel v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma

    Lois Ada Sipuel could not be denied entrance to a state law school only because of her race.
  • Brown v. Board of Education was filed in Federal district court

    In Kansas
  • Briggs et al. v. Elliott et al.

    Marshall and the NAACP presented a array of social science evidence showing how segregation harmed black school children, with evidence from sociologist the Kenneth Clark and his controversial "Doll Study."
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Robert Carter led the NAACP legal team into trial.
  • Gebhart et al. v. Belton et al.; Gebhart et al. v. Bulah et al.; Belton et al. v. Gebhart et al.; Bulah et al. v. Gebhart et al.

    These cases went to trial
  • Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, VA

    The U. S. District court found in favor of the school board under the theory of "separate but equal."
  • Gebhart et al. v. Belton et al.; Gebhart et al. v. Bulah et al.; Belton et al. v. Gebhart et al.; Bulah et al. v. Gebhart et al.

    A Delaware court ruled that the plaintiffs were entitled to admission to White public schools.
  • Supreme Court annoucment

    The Supreme Court announced that it would hear oral arguments in Briggs and Brown during the upcoming October 1952 term.
  • The Bundling of the Brown v. Board Cases

    In the days before the arguments were to be heard with Briggs and Brown, the Supreme Court announced a postponement. Three weeks later, the Court said that it would also hear the Delaware cases, as well as Davis v. Prince Edward and the Bolling et al. v. Sharpe et al. The Supreme Court agreed to hear all five of the school desegregation cases collectively. This showed school segregation as a national issue, not just a southern one
  • December

    First round of arguments held in Brown and its companion cases.
  • June

    The Supreme Court ordered that a second round of arguments in Brown v. Board be heard in October.
  • September

    Chief Justice Fred Vinson Jr. died of a heart attack on the 8th. President Eisenhower nominated California Governor Earl Warren to replace Vinson as interim Chief. The Court rescheduled arguments in Brown for December. Justice Earl Warren would go on to deliver the unanimous ruling in the Brown v. Board case.
  • December 7th-9th

    Second round of arguments in Brown v. Board of Education.
  • May

    The Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, and declared that racial segregation in public schools violated the Equal Protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
  • Bolling v. Sharpe

    That same day, the Court held that racial segregation in the District of Columbia public schools violated the Due Process clause of the 5th Amendment in Bolling v. Sharpe.
  • April

    The Supreme Court heard its third round of arguments in Brown, this time concerning remedies.
  • Brown II

    On the last day of the term, the Supreme Court handed down Brown II, ordering that desegregation occur with "all deliberate speed."