Baroque Era (1600-1730s)

  • Jacopo Peri (1561-1633)

    Jacopo Peri (1561-1633)
    Peri was one of the founders of opera, but he claimed to be the first with his mostly lost "Dafne" (1597). Apart from his 20 stage works and 30 songs in the Early Baroque era, he also composed the first surviving opera, "Euridice" (1600).
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    Baroque Era

    This era is usually divided in 3 parts:
    Early Baroque (1600-1650), Mid Baroque (1650-1700), & Late Baroque (1700-1730). During this era, opera was created & became very popular. Stylistically, monody was used in most of the singing & seconda prattica was used in composing. Specifically, basso continuo, homophonic, & recitative. Sacred music was still very relevant. Most musical productions took place in churches & courts. Composer would use emotion in writing to provoke emotion in the audience.
  • Giulio Caccini (1551-1618)

    Giulio Caccini (1551-1618)
    Caccini was one of the founders of opera. He was a composer of the Early Baroque era. His book of songs "Le nuove musiche" (1602) provided details of the new singing style. His work consisted of 4 stage works and more than 75 songs/arias.
  • Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)

    Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
    Monteverdi was considered as the most important composer during the Early Baroque era. He was one of the founders of the seconda pratica. Although not all survived, his work consisted of books of madrigals and operas. Such as, "L'Orfeo" (1607), "Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda" (1624), "Il ritorno d'Ulisse" (1639-1641), and "L'incoronazione di Poppea" (1642).
  • Giovanni Gabrieli (ca.1557-1612)

    Giovanni Gabrieli (ca.1557-1612)
    Gabrieli was an Italian composer in the Early Baroque era that was well known for his use of instruments in his sacred music. His works consisted of "In ecclesiis" (pub. 1615), "Sacrae symphoniae" (vol. II pub. 1615), 90 motets, grand concertos, and instrumental music.
  • Henry Purcell (1659-1695)

    Henry Purcell (1659-1695)
    Purcell was considered the most important English composer during the Mid Baroque era. Purcell composed songs, anthems, sacred music, stage works, incidental music, keyboard works, and "Dido and Aneas" (1689).
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
    Bach was considered the master of the Baroque era, specifically the Late Baroque era. He has become a staple in music history and a respected icon to this day. Although he did not write operas, he composed cantatas, masses, motets, oratorios and many more various works. His notable works during this era were "Christ lag in Todes Banden" (1708), "Brandenburg Concerti" (1721), and "St. John Passion" (1724).
  • Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759)

    Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759)
    Handel was a German musician during the Late Baroque era that invented the English oratorio. Apparently, Beethoven respected him above all others. Other than oratorios, odes, church music, cantatas, sonatas, and other various works, he also composed "Giulio Cesare" (1724) and "Rinaldo" (1711).
  • Francois Couperin (1668-1733)

    Francois Couperin (1668-1733)
    Couperin was/is known as one of the most important French composers of the Late Baroque era. His works consisted of sacred and secular vocal works, chamber music, and 27 sets of keyboard works. Also his trio sonatas, "Les Nations" (1726).
  • John Gay (1685-1735)

    John Gay (1685-1735)
    Gay was an English poet and playwright during the Late Baroque era who introduced ballad opera with the first and most famous ballad opera, "A Beggar's Opera" (1728).