Baroque Era (1600-1750)

Timeline created by hannahbilski
In Music
  • 1567

    Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)

    Transitional figure from the Renaissance to the Baroque.* Trained in Renaissance style, also adept at composing modern music. Used dissonances in his music (madrigals) for text expression. Seconda practtica monody with dissonance, very expressive
  • Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643)

    Organist who worked at St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. Greatly influenced J.S. Bach.
  • Francesca Caccini (1586- after 1641)

    Soprano and the daughter of Giulio Caccini. The first woman to compose operas, sang lead roles in several early operas. She became the highest paid musica in Italy by age 20. Highly praised for her musical abilities.
  • Invention of Opera (1600)

    First extant opera, invented in Florence, Italy by the Florentine Camerata. Invented by Jacopo Peri and Giulio Caccini. Preferred solo singing accompanied by only a bass line – the basso continuo, titled this style monody (monophonic) a solo voice (singing recitative) with basso continuo: the voice closely follows the free rhythm of the words in “emotional speech”
  • Caccini and Peri: Euridice (1600)

    The first extant opera. The first opera Dafne was composed by Caccini and Peri in 1897.
  • Period: to

    Early Baroque Era

  • Monteverdi: Orfeo (1607)

    Begins with a fanfare opening called a toccata, followed by an instrumental prelude, then by a recitative. Overtures were not used until *way* later.
  • Caccini: Primo Libro delle Musiche a una e due Voci (1618)

    La Liberazione was considered a Ballet – contains both a danced section and a horse ballet. Contained an overture and incidental music. Became the second Italian opera performed outside of Italy.
  • Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677)

    Mother was a servant to Guilio Strozzi who adopted her. Studied under Francesco Cavalli at the Academia degli Unisoni. She published eight sets of songs, each set dedicated to a different wealthy patron. Except for one book of madrigals and one book of cantatas for solo voice and continuo, most of her works are ariettas and aria. Did not write opera, but dramatic songs and cantatas.
  • Opening of Teatro de San Cassiano (1637)

    Opening of first public opera theater in Venice. Prior to its opening, you had to be at court or invited into the court to hear opera.
  • Louis the 14th of France (1638-1715)

    Loved dancing, was an excelled dancer. Dancing was a ritualized demonstration of social hierarchy.
  • Emergence of Arias (1640s)

    Arias became the most desired and appreciated pieces. Arias are an extended piece for a solo singer with more elaboration and coherence that a recit; more song-like, have a steady beat and tempo, and are formally structured, could be analyzed.
  • Monteverdi: The Coronation of Poppea (1642)

    Premiered in Venice, composed when he was 75, the genre was about 40 years old. Early operas were typically based on mythology, but this was historical. Retelling, fictionalization of history.
  • Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (1644-1704)

    Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist. One of the most important composers for the violin, especially in the instrument's early years. Violin technique allowed him to play double stops and polyphony, reach 6th and 7th positions.
  • Period: to

    Commonwealth Era (1649-1660)

    Stage plays were forbidden in England because Puritans thought theater was an invention of the devil. Composers began to set plays to music.
  • Solo Italian Cantata (1650s)

    Mid-Baroque cantatas, usually secular, in Italian, composed for 1 or 2 singers with basso continuo
  • Strozzi: L’astratto (The Distracted One, c.1650)

    In Italian, text painting with chromaticism. Trying to depict the affection of the text "suffering" and "sorrow." Basso continuo accompaniment.
  • Period: to

    Middle Baroque Era

  • Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713)

    Made clear distinctions between the different types of sonatas; he was the master of the trio sonata. The trio sonata had four people.
  • Henry Purcell (1659-1695)

    Singer, organist, composer of instrumental and vocal music. Created British opera that was not like Italian opera. Assimilated the musical styles of Europe, wrote incidental music for plays. Worked in the court of Charles II, James II, and William and Mary.
  • Theatre Troupes (1660)

    Charles II issued patents for two companies of players and performances began of plays set to music.
  • Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725)

    Father of Domenico Scarlatti. Teacher in Naples, many of his students helped create the Baroque movement forward into the classical style. His death marks a better indicator of the end of the Baroque better than Bach.
  • Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre (c. 1666-1729)

    Called the "wonder of our century (17th century)." One of the very little known female musician, famous in France.
  • François Couperin (1668-1773)

    French composer, keyboard player.
  • Biber: Sonata No. 1 (ca. 1676)

    Mid-Baroque violin sonata. Praeludium is for violin and basso continuo. Violin part uses a virtuostic style similar to that of solo vocal singing. Embellishments, variations, finale gives chance to display virtuosity.
  • Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)

    "The Red Priest," was called so because of his red hair. Worked at the Pieta, an orphanage for girls in Venice. Vivaldi composed 60 ripieno concertos, 425 concerto grosso types, 350 solo concertos, 45 double concertos (mostly for 2 violins). Considered the greatest master of the Baroque concerto.
  • Georg Philip Telemann (1681-1767)

    German composer of more than 125 orchestral suites. Helped establish the French-style orchestra suite in Germany. Published a collection called Tafelmusik (1733).
  • Jean-Joseph Mouret (1682-1738)

    Served the son of King Louis XIV. Composed operas, suites, and grand entertainments.
  • Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)

    Keyboard virtuoso, wrote over 500 sonatas for harpsichord, operas, cantatas, and keyboard exercises. Traveled, served Portuguese and Spanish royal families.
  • G.F Handel (1685-1759)

    German composer living in England, writing Italian music. Popular orchestra suites: Music for the Royal Fireworks and Water music. Appointed as one of the music directors at the Royal Academy of Music (1720).
  • J. S. Bach (1685-1750)

    German composer, organist virtuoso. One of the most skilled musicians in the Baroque. Wrote music in all genres except for opera. Composed over 1,000 works, including more than 200 cantatas, 20 secular cantatas, 7 motets, chamber music, many sonatas, keyboard music, orchestral concertos.
  • Period: to

    Late Baroque Era

  • Handel: Water Music, Suite in D Major (1717)

    Performed for a royal party on the Thames River (7/17/1717). 22 movements, supposedly the harpsichords was not used at the first performance. First movement: French Overture. French was the language of the aristocracy, and this piece was written for the King's party. Movement I: “Allegro”
    Movement II: “Alla Hornpipe”
    1717 (first performance)
    Form: Ternary (ABA)
  • Bach: St. John Passion, BMV 245 (1724)

    Intended to have a sermon in the middle. Gospel text is sung by the tenor in secco recitative.
  • Vivaldi: Le Quattro Stagioni (1725)

    The Four Seasons, cycle of four violin concertos, word painting in instrumental music. Concerto No. 1 in E
    “La primavera” (Spring)
    Concerto No. 2 in G minor
    “L’estate” (Summer)
    Concerto No. 3 in F
    “L’autunno” (Autumn)
    Concerto No. 4 in F minor
    “L’inverno” (Winter)
  • Mouret: Suite de symphonies (1729)

    Written for trumpets, violins, oboes, timpani, basses, bassoons, and organ.
  • Handel: The English Oratorio (c. 1730)

    Public pleased with new genre, no lavish scenery, performed in English. Oratorio presented during Lent when operas were forbidden. Oratorio was the name of the hall where people went to hear this type of music.
  • Bach: Cantata No. 140 BWV 140 (1731)

    Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Awake, A Voice Calls us”) Movements 1, 3, and 7, based on a chorale by Philipp Nicolai.
  • Handel: Messiah (1742)

    English oratorio, 52 seperate numbers. First performed in the city of Dublin. Only work without narrator, characters, plot. Alternates between homophony and imitative polyphony. No. 44: Chorus: “Hallelujah," mixes homophony, monophony, and polyphony. 3 parts:
    I: Christmas Section
    II: Easter Section
    III: Redemption Section
  • Bach: The Art of Fugue, BMV 1080, "Contrapunctus I) (1749)

    Published in 1751, 14 dugues, 4 canons.