Steam Powered VehiclesOne of the most characteristic inventions of the 20th century has been the automobile. The first prototypes were created at the end of the 19th century, although it was not until the first decade of the 20th century that the public began to realize their usefulness. The first steam-powered vehicle was created in 1769 by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, this carried with him the name Fardier.
Primitive Electric VehicleRobert Anderson, between 1832 and 1839, invented what would be the first and rudimentary electric vehicle, powered by non-rechargeable electric cells. The electric machine was less heavy than the steam one, very silent but it has a short duration. At the beginning of the 20th century, the development of the automobile as a generalized means of transport was possible thanks to the evolution of the technique, the constructors or manufacturers, and the competitiveness.
Prewar stageDevelopment of cars that are completely closed and with a more rounded shape, the rear wings or fenders were increasingly integrated into the engine hood, the headlights were integrated into the wings and the luggage compartment integrated into the rear of the car also appeared bodywork. Significant automobiles:
- Ford B
- Bugatti 57
- Citroën Traction Avant
- Volkswagen Type 1 or Beetle
Postwar stageCharacterized by the development of safer, less polluting, and efficient engines, automatic transmission, and air conditioning are fully extended in the United States. The brake booster begins to appear at this time. Japanese constructors are also emerging, some of these brands such as Toyota have reached first place in production volume. Some representative models of this stage are:
- Citroën 2CV
- Citroën DS
- Renault 4
- Renault 16
Modern Electric VehiclesAfter a century of the disappearance of the many precursors of this field, the evolution of power batteries for electric motors, going from lead-acid batteries to lithium-ion batteries. The change from the direct current motor to the alternating current motor together with the enormous evolution of control electronics has made the electric vehicle one of the most practical solutions for the mobility of the future.