World 2000

Armed Conflict (Inside and Outside the U.S.)

  • Feb 1, 1519

    Hernan Cortes lands on the Yucatan Peninsula and begins Aztec Overthrow

    Hernan Cortes lands on the Yucatan Peninsula and begins Aztec Overthrow
    In February of 1519, after a charter for the Mexican land had been revoked, Hernan Cortes led six hundred Spanish troops through peninsula to Tenochtitlan. The Spanish wereurprised by the size and wealth of the Aztec capital and received many gifts from king Moctezuma II. The Spanish attempted to take over the city, yet were driven out and suffered 300 casualties. As the Aztecs took back the city, they succumbed to the Small Pox that the Spanish brought over. By 1521, the Aztecs were wiped out.
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    First Anglo-Powhatan War

    After the establishment of the Jamestown colony in Virginia, land disputes and open conflict often existed between the English settlers and Powhatan Native Americans of the area. After a 4 year "war" that consisted of small battles and land gains, Sir Thomas Dale went to confront Pohatan for peace. Peace negotiations were finally ratified by the marriage of Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas and John Rolfe.
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    Second Anglo-Powhatam War

    After years of peace, the english tried to influence the Powhatan Confederacy and Cheif Opechancanough with Christianity. This led to an outburst, called the Indian Massacre of 1622, that led to a quarter of the Jamestown Colony being killed. After retaliation by the English as well as periods of peace and tension, peace was established. Following the conflict, the English continued to expand beyond the east shore into Virginia.
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    Third Anglo-Powhatan

    After a period of peace between the Powhatan Confederacy and the growing colony, the natives initiated a last attempt to drive out the colonists. 500 were killed, but that was only a about a tenth of the population at the time. While soldifying their defenses, the colonists stormed and captured Opechancanough. When he was being taken to Jamestown, he was killed by a guard and the Confederacy disintegrated. The Treaty of 1646 was signed and a border between the two was established.
  • Bacon's Rebellion: 1675-1676

    Bacon's Rebellion: 1675-1676
    When poor farmers were angered over the protection of Indians in the Virginia Colony, they were inspired by a younger planter Nathaniel Bacon. He led the farmers in rebellious efforts to wage all-out war on the surrounding natives. The plundered and drove out any and all natives because he deemed them all enemies; they even enslaved many. Governor Berkeley tried to call back the 13-hundred men, yet they drove him out of Jamestown and burned it. Bacon however died in 1676 and they dispersed.
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    King Philip's War

    Metacom, known as "King Philip of the Wampanoag" to the English, waged a propotionally extensive war against the English settlers in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Maine. The colonists eventually captured and killed Metacom, yet there was little to no support from England, helping the separated mindset of the colonists.
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    King William's War

    Part of the Nine Years' War, King William's War was one of the many conflicts of the English and French in North America until the power struggle between the two ended after the Seven Years' War.
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    Queen Anne's War

    As in King William's War, the primary beligerents in North America were not the powers themselves, but native tribes against the English. Though the war was primarily fought in Europe, it did eventually end in claims in the Americas such as the Hudson Bay, Acadia, and Newfoundland to the french. These conditions caused later conflicts.
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    King George's War/ War of Jenkin's Ear/ War of the Austrian Succession

    Another of the North American Indian Wars, King George's war involved a primarily European theatre with battles in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Nova Scotia. It eventually resulted in the French regaining the city of Louisbourg.
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    Seven Years' War (French and Indian War)

    The overall war involved most european powers, almost being a global war. The North American theater, known as the French and Indian War, was fought between the french and New France, and the English and colonists. It resulted it France's ultimate departure from North America. It is a leading cause of the Revolution because the colonists had to fight and finance the english economic recovery without much help.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    On December 16, 1773, after officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain, a group of colonists boarded the ships and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor.
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord
    The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the Revolutionary War. They were fought in Massachusetts near Boston, where British troops has been ordered to destroy militia supplies. In thee confrontation between the British and militia, the militia was pushed back at first. Although this is true, the militia made a comeback and ultimately outnumbered the British forces, pushing them back to Boston.
  • Battle of Trenton

    Battle of Trenton
    The Battle of Trenton Occurred after Wshington's famous Crossing of the Delaware River. The dangerous crossing in bad weather made it possible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle was a great victory for the Americans significantly boosted the Continental Army's morale, and inspired re-enlistments.
  • Battle of Saratoga: Sept 19 - October 17

    Battle of Saratoga: Sept 19 - October 17
    The Battle of Saratoga is known as one of the greatest turning points of the revotutionary war. It was because of the way that the militia was able to stop John Burgoyne's attempt to separate New England from the rest of America. During Burgoyne's campaign to divide America, colonists and the militia slowed their progress to a crawl, ultimately resulting in the British running low on supplies and being overpowered by a larger militia force.
  • Siege/Battle of Yorktown

    Siege/Battle of Yorktown
    The Battle of Yorktown was a decisive victory for the American forces which ultimately resulted in the surrender of Lord Cornwallis' army and an end to the Revolutionary War. In thiis battle, America's French allies proved to be crucial to their success in defeating the British in Yorktown, Virginia. They launched a sucessful joint attack on the British defended port of Yorktown with the American forces.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
  • Quasi-War with France

    Quasi-War with France
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Battle of Tippecanoe
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    War of 1812

    This conflict between the British and Americans was brought on by trade restriction by the British on the independent Americans, naval impressments, and Native attitudes against the Americans. It was largely fought on the frontiers in the north, the border with Canada, and the south up to Washington D.C. Though both sides occupied parts of each others' territory, proper boundaries were set in the Treat of Ghent.
  • Burning of Washington

    Burning of Washington
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
  • Fall of the Alamo

    Fall of the Alamo
  • Goliad Massacre

    Goliad Massacre
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Battle of San Jacinto
  • Battle of Buena Vista

    Battle of Buena Vista
  • Siege of Veracruz

    Siege of Veracruz
  • Pottawatomie Massacre

    Pottawatomie Massacre
  • Juan Cortina's Attack on Brownsville, Texas

    Juan Cortina's Attack on Brownsville, Texas
    Due racial tensions and other previous quarrels between Juan Cortina and his military force, and the Brownsville militia and police, the two classed in a series of violent outbreaks from 1859 to about 1861. The original attack on July 13th came about when Cortina shot the town marshall Robert Shears for mistreating his workers. Cortina's force proceeded to implicate a series of raids on the town of Brownsville, Texas. Image Source:
  • John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry

    John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry
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    Civil War

    The Civil War was a war to keep the states together; stop the succession of the Confederate States. There had been an ongoing distancing of the ideals of the North and the South over which territories would contain slavery. The Union gave way to Sectionalism, and the southern states saw no option but to collectively succeed. Some significant Battles: 1st Bull Run, Shiloh, 2nd Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Vicksburg, Wilderness, Sherman's March to the Sea.
  • NYC Draft Riots

    NYC Draft Riots
  • Massacre of Cheyennes at Sand Creek, Colorado

    Massacre of Cheyennes at Sand Creek, Colorado
    After peace dealings between the Cheyenne and Black Kettle, and Colorado militia at Fort Lyon, the militia men were dispathed to the encampment of Black Kettle. The men of the village had departed on a hunting expedition, and the only people left on the village were the old and women and children. When the militiamen arrived, they were ordered to attack and even upon the raising of a white flag, they massacred with casualties ranging from 70 to 163.
  • Red River War

    Red River War
    The Red River War erupted when the government set out on a campaign to remove virtually all native tribes from the Southern Plains and place them in reservations. During the course of the war, neither side had defininf victories as many of the battles were small scale and resulted in relatively insignificant gains or losses for either side. Fro 1874 into mide-1875, the tribes began to surrender due to a lack of resources. With the end of this war, the plains saw the end of nomadic tribes.
  • Battle of Little Big Horn

    Battle of Little Big Horn
    The Battle of Little Big Horn was the result of dealings by the US Government in attempts to seize land in the Black Hills from the Sioux which contained gold. When the Sioux refused the $6 million dollar offer, a force lead by George Custer was sent to take the land or subdue the natives. Custer split his force into 3, at which point he did not know the Sioux had 3x the soldiers. Custer's force was subdued in about an hour, and all 270 men were killed and their bodies were mutilated.
  • Massacre of northern Cheyennes at Fort Robinson, Nebraska

    Massacre of northern Cheyennes at Fort Robinson, Nebraska
    After suffering under terrible conditions in their reservation, the Cheyennes attempted to flee and return to their native land in Nebraska. When they were seized by the Army, they were treated even more harshly. When they tried to escape again, all but 32 were returned, but the 32 were tracked down, cornered, and killed.
  • Massacre of Teton Sioux at Wounded Knee

    Massacre of Teton Sioux at Wounded Knee
    The Ghost Dance by the Sioux caused a lot of unrest with the America troops, and set out to arrest Sitting Bull, when an aid shoots the soldiers trying to arrest him, which was followed by the troops killing the aids and Sitting Bull. When the Sioux set out to escape their reservation, they were intercepted and the troops forced them to turn over their weapons. A weapons discharged, a soldier was shot, and the soldiers killed the some 300 Sioux. This marked an end to Native resistance.
  • Cuban War of Independence Begins

    Cuban War of Independence Begins
    On April 1st and 11th, large-scale Anti-Spanish uprisings began on the island of Cuba. The large operation was organized by many Mambi liberation leaders, including Jose Marti, in New York City. The plan to seize the island and throw off spanish leadership received little support from american businesses, but gained the sympathy of the public. Upon hearing about the atrocities and hardship inflicted upon detainies by the spanish in concentration camps, the public supported any war sentiments.
  • USS Maine Explosion

    USS Maine Explosion
    After threats by Cuban-Spanish loyalists had been made against various peoples, uncluding Americans, in Havanna, the USS Maine was dispatched to Havanna Harbor to "make a presence". However, on February 15, there was an explosion that ultimately killed 258 crewmen and sunk the ship. It was thought to have been a bomb planted by the loyalists, but now it is presumed to have been an accidental armsor fuel explosion. Journalists thrived in the moment and exploited the facts, enraging the public.
  • First Action of Spanish-American War: Manila Bay

    First Action of Spanish-American War: Manila Bay
    The first conflict of the short Spanish-American War came when a U.S. fleet under George Dewey was sent to Manila Bay in the Phillipines. In the battle, Dewey's fleet destroyed or captured all 10 Spanish ships with only 1 loss of life, compared to the 381 lost by the Spanish. By August, U.S. troops seized total control and began to occupy Manila.
  • Santiago de Cuba, El Caney Hill, and San Juan Hill

    Santiago de Cuba, El Caney Hill, and San Juan Hill
    US involvement in Cuba was largely centered around Santiago de Cuba, an apparent stronghold. On May 19th, 7 spanish ships met an American blockade of 5 battleships and 2 cruisers. Later on July 1, the war's only large land conflicts took place. American troops were able to seize two high points overlooking Santiago de Cuba at El Caney Hill and San Juan Hill. The attack at San Juan Hill was led by Theodore Roosevelt with his "Rough Riders".
  • Phillipine Revolution

    Phillipine Revolution
    Emilio Aguinaldo decrees himself as head of the Phillipines and of the revolutionary government. On February 2, 1899, violence finally breaks out between American and Filipino rebels. After long fighting and large numbers of causualties, Aguinaldo is captured on March 23, 1901, and the revolt dies. Roosevelt grants the island amnesty, and the island would finally gain independence in 1946.
  • The Battle of Santiago de Cuba

    The Battle of Santiago de Cuba
    On July 3rd, the Spanish fleet made an attempt to break through the American blockade of Cuba in hopes of escaping to open sea. Despite their attempts, the American ships destroyed the Spanish fleet. The Spanish lost a total of 474 men. This was the largest naval battle of the war.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    On July 17th, the Spanish government expressed wanting an armistice. Later in December, as part of the armistice, Spained publicly claimed Cuba's independence, and signed over the Phillipines, Puerto Rice, and Guam in return for $20 mill.
  • World War One

    World War One
    World War one was triggered by the assasination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo-Bosnia. The conflict that was caused between Austria and Bosnia by this assasination ultimately resulted in most of Europe and other major powers of the world being thrusted into total war because of the fulfilling of various alliances.
  • America Enters World War One

    America Enters World War One
    Due to contributing factors such as the sinking of the Sussex, the Zimmerman Telegram, the sinking of the Lucitania, and the Bryce Report, the U.S. entered World War 1, Though the conflict would end about a year and a half later, the United States receives much credit for causing an allied victory because America was in a good economic position and perfectly able to mobilize for many years of fighting, however the Central Powers had depleated many of their resources and could not continue.
  • Conclusion of World War One

    Conclusion of World War One
    On November 11th, the Great War came to a close with an armistice signed in Versailles, France, by most of the allied and central powers. The treaty dealt with issues such as war reparations and the forming of a League of Nations. Despite the huge backing of President Wilson, the US does not ratify the treaty, and instead a separate treaty is signed during the Harding administration. The treaty also called for disarmament by all parties in hopes of avoiding a conflict of this magnitude.
  • Bonus Army in Washington, DC

    Bonus Army in Washington, DC
    On July 28, 1932 it was ordered that the thousands of WWI veterans who were asking for their war pensions must be removed from the areas which they were occupying. Upon this decision, General McArthur led U.S. Army troops through the encampments of veterans in a successful effort to push the families out. While doing so, shots were fired, bricks were thrown, and fire was set to the temporary housing resulting in the death of 2 protesters This was yet another blemish on Hoover's reputation.
  • Pearl Harbor Attacked by Japan

    Pearl Harbor Attacked by Japan
    -Japan launched a suprise attack on Pearl Harbor, in Hawaii during the morning of December 7 in 1941
    -21 US Navy ships were either damaged or sunk
    -Over 2400 service men and women killed and over 1000 were injured
  • America Enters WWII

    America Enters WWII
    America declared war on Japan on December 8, 1941
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    World War Two (Time of American Involvement)

    Allies: U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, and Yugoslavia vs.
    Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
    Pacific Theatre
    -Battle of Okinawa
    -Battle of Midway
    -Battle of Iwo Jima
    -Coral Sea
    European Theatre
    -Battle of the Bulge
    -Battle of Stalingrad
    -Londan Blitz
    -Bombing of Drezden
    -Second Battle of El Alamein
    Go To Class Battle Map for Link
  • Nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    Little Boy Dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945
    Fat Man dropped on August 9, 1945 Caused Japanese Surrender
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    Korean War

    The Korean War begins when North Korean troops cross the established 38th Parallel. Though American and Southern forces were able to push Northern forces far north after repelling the invasion, the new People's Republic of China intervened on the side of North Korea and pushed Southern and American forces past the 38th parallel down to the edge of the peninsula. A stalemate was established as well as the DMZ.
  • US involvement in the "Forgotten War" (Korean War)

    US involvement in the "Forgotten War" (Korean War)
    Battle of Osan
    -First American involvement in what would become the Korean War
    -America got involved because the US wanted to stop Communism from spreading across the world.
    -540 American troops attacked the Korean City of Osan. They were defeated because they did not have sufficient weaponry to destoy the North Korean tanks.
  • CIA Intervention and Containment

    CIA  Intervention and Containment
    -Guatemala:CIA supported a coup that aimed to overthrow the democratically elected leader of Guatemala who had suspected communist ties.
    -Iran: CIA aided coup which aimed to overthrow supposed communist leader of Iran
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    Vietnam War

    Though there was armed conflict going on between French and South Vietnam forces against North Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, the United States was not very involved until about 1964. During the period in which the United States was active in Vietnam, some important events or issues were:
    -Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (August 7, 1964): Granted president right to use military action without consent of congress if subject of unprovoked attack
    -Operation Rolling Thunder (1965-68): Bombing campaign by US
  • Suez Crisis

    Suez Crisis
    Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nassar made efforts to modernize and increase the powers of the government. In July 1956 after rejecting offers from the US and Britiain to help finance the building of the Aswan Dam, he made the decision to nationalize the Suez Canal. Due to different rationale, Britain and France, backed by Israel, coordinated an attack in October. After threats from the Soviet Union to intervene, the US "forced" their allies to withdraw. This led to the Six Day War.
  • Bombing of 16th Street Baptist Church

    Bombing of 16th Street Baptist Church
    KKK placed a bomb outside a Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama which killed 4 young black girls
  • "Bloody Sunday"

    "Bloody Sunday"
    600 civil rights acivists were attacked by police who used billy clubs and tear gas to prevent the activists from crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge and heading to Montgomery, Alabama
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    -North Vietnamese and Vietcong attacked South Vietnamese cities during the Vietnamese holiday, Tet.
    -U.S. forces successfully repulsed the attack although the communists did have short success
  • My Lai

    My Lai
    -The Vietnamese village of My Lai was massacred by a Batallion of U.S. troops
    -Many of the victims were women and children
    -Lieutenant William Calley of the U.S. army was convicted of criminal offeses for his actions at My Lai and was sent to minilary prison
  • Kent State Shooting

    Kent State Shooting
    -Students at Kent State University were fired upon by the National Guard, who also used tear gas
    -They were protesting the escalation/invasion of Cambodia at the university's ROTC building
    -4 students were killed
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    Yom Kippur War

    -War between Egypt/Syria and Israel
    -Henry Kissinger and Nixon successfully worked out peace between the two sides
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    Iranian Hostage Crisis

    The 1979 Iranian Revolution was carried out by Anti-American Muslim Extremists who sought to remove the Pro-US Shah. During the event, students who supported the Revolution seized the US Embassy and took those inside hostage for 444 days. It was the downfall of Jimmy Carter because the captors refused to negotiate with him and the hostages were released hours after Reagan's inauguration.
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    Gulf War

    After Iraq invaded Kuwait claiming entitlement to land and oil, and UN prompted coalition came together to liberate Kuwait and the significant oil supply it contained. The land operation, Desert Storm, was very quick and suffered very few casualties despite the many that Iraq suffered. In the end, Saddam Hussein was left in power, despite the atrocities he committed, and would eventually cause the Iraq War of 2003-2011.
  • Columbine High School Shooting

    Columbine High School Shooting
    At Columbine High School in Jefferson County, Colorado, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold went on a shooting spree at their school. This massacre resulted in the deaths of 12 students and 1 teacher and the injury of 21 others. This was the 4th deadliest school massacre in American History
  • September 11th Terrorist Attacks

    September 11th Terrorist Attacks
    The attacks of September 11, 2001 were coordinated terrorist suicide attacks that were launched by the Islamic militant group, Al-Qaeda. On September 11. 19 terrorists hijacked 4 commercial airliners. Two of the airliners were flown into the World Trade Center in NYC, one into the Pentagon, and one crashed in Pennsylvania. The planes caused the Twin Towers to collapse and caused severe damage to the Pentagon. There were a total 2,977 innocent victims who died as a result of these attacks.
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    War in Iraq/Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Due to allegations that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction, and as a result of the tensions between the middle east and America following the attacks of 9/11, American forces invaded Iraq. The invasion and occupation of Iraq ultimately resulted in the capture of Saddam Hussein and his removal from power.