Supreme Court Milestones

  • Supreme Court

    Description: It was established under Article III in Constitution, had Chief Justice and five Associate Justices. In 1806, the number of Superior Court Justices was increased from five to nine.
    Significance:Established third branch of government
  • John Jay

    Description: He was first Chief Justice, and was appointed by George Washington
    Significance: Jay's Treaty and opposition to Fedealists
  • John Marshall

    Description: He was very good at politics, and bent on preserving private property rights, enhancement of prestige and power of court and establishment of strong , central, federal power, had served on Adam's envoy to France in the XYZ affair, in 1799 in U.S. House of Representatives
    Significance: Decisions guided the Supremecourt and U.S government, and still continues to.
  • Marybury v. Madison

    Description: James Madison assumed office of secretary and state after election of 1800, he found several undelivered commissions, one of William Marybury, who was justice of peace of district of Colombia. Madison was told by Jefferson not to hand over the commissions, and Marybury sued. This case went to supreme court in 1803.
    Significance: Checks and Balances, and established Supreme Court's power to carryout Constitution
  • Fletcher v. Peck

    Description: Robert Fletcher bought 15000 acres of land from John Peck. Peck placed a covenant in the deed that claimed that the title was not been constitutionally impaired by any act of the state of Georgia. The outcome was that the Georgia law was struck down.
    Significance: Showed power of Court to review state laws constitutionally
  • McCollough v. Maryland

    Description: There was an argument over the second bank of U.S, marshall argued that the bank is constitutional if it meets its responsibilities of regulationg currency and maintaining public credit
    Significance; Marshall widended federal power to the extreme
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward

    Description: New Hampshire attempted to altar the college's charter granted by George III in 1769. The Court overturned the state law on the grounds that state charters were also contracts and couldn't be changed by later legislatures
    Significance: Protct corporations
  • Gibbons v. Ogden

    Description: Aaron Ogden had a monopoly on steamboat traffic under a New York law on the Hudson River btween New Jesrey and New York City. Thomas Gibbons set up a competing line and Ogden sued. Gibbons had a federal license to operate a steamboat. Marshall gave 'commerce' the most various definition
    Significance: Increased business competition throughout society
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    Description: Samuel Worcester was a minister , and was helping editor of the Cherokee Nation newspaper translate the bible. He started helping the Cherokees revise their Constitution. Georgia government ceated a law permitting 'white persons' from residing the Cherokee Nation and gave missionaries until March 1 to get a liscense or residency or leave. Worcester refused the law and was arrested ton March 12.
    Significance: Court struck down the Georgia law. Indians were still removed.
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford

    Description: Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri and was taken to Wisconsin(free territroy) for a period of time, then returned to Missouri. He argued he was a free citizen, and went to Missouri court and sued for freedom. The case was sent to Supreme Court where they ruled against Scott.