Process of Incorporation

By Zoofull
  • Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad Company v. City of Chicago

    Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad Company v. City of Chicago
    After having a railroad and some private property condemned to join two streets, the city of Chicago properly compensated the owners of the private land, but only gave the railroad owners one dollar. The owners of the railroad appealed. The railroad company was denied compensation due to the nature of the procedures taken during the compensation. The final decision was 7 to 1 in favor of Chicago.
  • Gitlow v. New York

    Gitlow v. New York
    After being charged with the crime of distributing a socialist manifesto that promoted the overthrowing of the government, Gitlow claimed that the statute that he was being indicted with went against the first amendment freedom of speech. The supreme court ruled that even though there is an amendment for freedom of speech, speech that involves harm to the government or the citizens of the government is not protected by that amendment.
  • Near v. Minnesota

    Near v. Minnesota
    After a printing press was suppressed due to their implication that a local police regiment had dealings with mobsters, the printing press took the local department to court. The supreme court decided in a 5 to 4 decision that Near's right to freedom of press had been violated by the local Minnesota government.
  • De Jonge v. Oregon

    De Jonge v. Oregon
    Dirk De Jonge (a communist party spokesman) held a meeting for the communist party on July 27th, 1934. During the meeting, the police raided the building and arrested De Jonge under the pretense of their criminal syndicalism statute. De Jonge took the case to court over an infringement of his first amendment rights. After making it to the supreme court, the court's decision rode on the fact that De Jonge had not done anything unlawful and there was no proof of any intent to cause harm.
  • Cantwell v. Connecticut

    Cantwell v. Connecticut
    After being arrested for trying to obtain money from the general public without a permit and a breach of the peace of citizens while trying to promote Jehova's Witness, Cantwell and his sons took the state of Connecticut to court. The Supreme Court decided unanimously in favor of Cantwell.
  • Everson v. Board of Education of the Township of Ewing

    Everson v. Board of Education of the Township of Ewing
    In 1947, the state of New Jersey passed a law that used taxpayer dollars to reimburse the money that schools used for transportation to and from school. A resident of the town of Ewing in New Jersey Filed a lawsuit under the pretenses that the law inherently went against the 1st amendment establishment clause, as most of the schools that gained from this law were private schools. After being denied by lower courts, the supreme court decided that the board of education was in the right.
  • Mapp v. Ohio

    Mapp v. Ohio
    After police entered Mapp's home in search of a fugitive, the police force obtained obscene material that went against one of Ohio's statutes. After using that evidence to incriminate Mapp, she took the case to court. The court ruled in favor of Mapp, saying that since the evidence was obtained illegally, it could not be used in the court case.
  • Robinson v. California

    Robinson v. California
    After being convicted by a state statute that forbid anyone from being addicted to narcotics, Robsinson sought help from the supreme court. The supreme court favored Robinson in a 6 to 2 decision.
  • Edwards v. South Carolina

    Edwards v. South Carolina
    After a group of 187 black students was convicted of disturbing the peace for peacefully protesting, an individual within the group went to court to claim a violation of their first amendment right to petition. They won the court case in an 8 to 1 decision.
  • Gideon v. Wainwright

    Gideon v. Wainwright
    After being denied the right to an attorney in a state court, Gideon went to court on the basis that his right to an attorney had been violated. The Supreme Court eventually unanimously ruled that Gideon's right to an attorney had been violated.
  • Ker v. California

    Ker v. California
    Police officers in California entered Ker's house without a warrant due to the belief that he was selling drugs. Ker took this as an affront to his 4th amendment rights. The supreme court decided 5 to 4 that Ker's 4th amendment rights had been infringed upon.
  • Malloy v. Hogan

    Malloy v. Hogan
    After pleading guilty to pool selling during a gambling raid, Malloy was sentenced to a $500 fine and 1 year in jail. It was later found that Malloy had refused to plead guilty until he was confined for an unreasonable amount of time. His case was eventually taken to the supreme court and he won in a 5 to 4 decision.
  • Pointer v. Texas

    Pointer v. Texas
    After allegedly robbing a seven-eleven gas station, Bob Granville Pointer, along with another man, was indicted for robbery. During their court case, the witness that had given the report was not present due to them moving out of the state. The court used a transcript of the witnesses's report, but Pointer and his associate took this as an infringement of their sixth amendment rights. Pointer took the case to court and won after reaching the supreme court.
  • Klopfer v. North Carolina

    Klopfer v. North Carolina
    After the state court in which Klopfer was being tried had tried to indefinitely put the case on recess, Klopfer tried to deny the motion. After the court affirmed the decision, Klopfer took the case to the supreme court, stating that his 6th amendment right to a speedy trial had been violated. In a unanimous decision, the court sided with Klopfer on the issue.
  • Miranda v. Arizona

    Miranda v. Arizona
    After being interrogated for two hours on a case involving rape and kidnapping, Miranda gave a written confession to the police officers. When the evidence was later used in court, it was found out that the officers had obtained the evidence without informing Miranda of his rights. This invalidated the evidence, yet the court still convicted Miranda with that evidence. The supreme court decided in a 5 to 4 decision that Miranda's 5th amendment rights had been violated.
  • Washington v. Texas

    Washington v. Texas
    After being accused of the crime of murder along with another man, Washington stated that Fuller (The other man accused of the same crime) would testify to his innocence. The state refused to allow Fuller as a witness. Washington felt that this was an infringement of his sixth amendment right to obtain witnesses and appealed the decision. The supreme court decided unanimously in favor of Washington.
  • Duncan v. Louisiana

    Duncan v. Louisiana
    After requesting a jury trial and being denied, Duncan was charged with 60 days in prison and a $150 fine. Duncan took the case to the supreme court on the basis that his 6th amendment right to trial by jury had been violated. Duncan won the case in a 7 to 2 decision.
  • Benton v. Maryland

    Benton v. Maryland
    After being found not guilty of larceny but guilty of burglary in a Maryland court, Benton won a case that erased the ten years he was charged for burglary. He was later tried again by the same court for the same crime and indicted for both cases. Benton knew this violated his 5th amendment right that protected against double jeopardy, so he took it to the supreme court and won.
  • Schilb v. Kuebel

    Schilb v. Kuebel
    After an excessive bail was given to the poor Schilb, he paid in full somehow. The Illinois court paid him back all but 1% after being proven innocent. Schilb won the court case 4 to 3.
  • Rabe v. Washington

    Rabe v. Washington
    After showing a potentially obscene film in a drive-in theater, Rabe was convicted for showing the film in a public area. After making it all the way to the supreme court, the conviction was reversed in a unanimous decision on the basis that Rabe was not informed of the nature of the conviction.
  • Argersinger v. Hamlin

    Argersinger v. Hamlin
    In Argersinger v. Hamlin, Argersinger was tried in court without an attorney. When the case reached the supreme court, they unanimously sided with Argersinger. The supreme court stated that the state had violated Argersinger's 6th amendment right to counsel for the imprisonable (right to an attorney).
  • In re Oliver

    In re Oliver
    After being convicted of a crime that he had no knowledge of, Olver took to the supreme court on the basis of due process. In the end, the Supreme court favored Oliver.
  • McDonald v. Chicago

    McDonald v. Chicago
    After the case of District of Columbia v. Heller, a district of Chicago decided that the 2nd amendment should also apply to the states considering that certain parts of states banned guns. The case eventually made it to the supreme court, which lead to a win for Mcdonald in a 5 to 4 decision.
  • Timbs v. Indiana

    Timbs v. Indiana
    After being indicted on a case of felony dealing and a case of conspiracy to commit a crime, Timbs was sentenced to 6 years in prison and a maximum of $10,000 fine. The court that ruled attempted to also seize the vehicle, but was turned down by a higher court. After turning down the seizure of the vehicle, the state court overturned that ruling and seized the car. The supreme court decided unanimously that the fine was excessive for the crime since the car was worth over $40,000.