100 yrs in Afganistan

  • Abdurrahman is succeeded

    Abdurrahman is succeeded
    Abdurrahman is succeeded in 1901 by his son Habibullah Khan, who successfully maintains a policy of strict neutrality during World War I.
  • independance as a nation

    A month of fighting between British and Afghan forces is inconclusive and rapidly leads to a treaty (signed in Rawalpindi in August 1919) in which Britain acknowledges Afghanistan's independence as a nation.
  • during the war

    Amanullah accelerates a programme of reform on European lines. But in doing so he alienates the old guard. Amanullah is forced into exile during an outbreak of civil war in 1929.
  • Zahir-Shah takes the throne

    Order is restored by Amanullah's cousin, Nadir Khan, until he in his turn is assassinated in 1933. This act of violence brings to the throne Nadir's only surviving son, as the 19-year-old Zahir Shah.
  • USA and USSR

    Both the USA and the USSR build highways and hospitals, in a mood of superpower competition orchestrated by Zahir's cousin and brother-in-law Daud Khan (prime minister from 1953).
  • Daud Khan resigns

    Daud Khan resigns in 1963 because of tense relations with Pakistan the border is closed from 1961 until just after his resignation. His departure prompts Zahir Shah to attempt a major constitutional reform.
  • Constitutionnin Afghan

    The constitution put in place in 1964 transforms Afghanistan in principle into a constitutional monarchy, excluding members of the royal family from political office
  • Elections

    Elections are held in 1965 At first the system seems to work well, but soon there is friction between the king and parliament. A sense of political stalemate is aggravated in the early 1970s by drought bringing famine and 100,000 deaths and other economic difficulties.
  • Daud Khan

    In 1973 Daud Khan returns to power with military support in an almost bloodless coup. Zahir Shah goes into exile in Europe.
  • Daud becomes president

    A new constitution in 1977 promotes Daud to the role of president. It also brings in what is seen as a cabinet of cronies, including some of his own royal relatives.
  • Revolution in afghanistan

    in 1978, is a violent revolution setting Afghanistan upon an entirely new course.
  • Holy War

    In March 1979 a resistance group declares a jihad, or holy war, against the godless regime in Kabul. In the same month more than 100 Soviet citizens living in Herat are seized and killed.
  • Guerrilla Groups come together

    The most striking Soviet achievement is inadvertently persuading seven Afghan guerrilla groups to come together in a common cause. In 1985 these seven, meeting in Peshawar, form a united front as the Islami Itehad Afghanistan Mujaheddin
  • Gorbachev decides to withdrawal

    Najibullah proves equally ineffective in reconciling the Afghan people to a Soviet presence, and in 1988 Gorbachev decides to cut his losses. He announces that Soviet troops will begin a phased withdrawal.
  • Friendship Bridge

    The last battalion crosses the Friendship Bridge over the Amu Darya river in February 1989 - leaving President Najibullah to try and run a communist Afghan state on his own
  • Kabul Falls

    in 1992 Kabul falls to his opponents. Najibullah secures promise of a safe passage from the UN forces, who prove unable to escort him out of the city. He is given asylum in the UN compound in Kabul.
  • The Taliban

    In 1994 the most significant group in present-day Afghanistan emerges unheralded and without fanfare. A mullah in Kandahar, Mohammad Omar Akhund commonly known as Mullah Omar, forms a group which he calls Taliban, meaning 'students' - in this case Sunni students of the Qur'an.
  • Taliban Takeover

    in September 1995 - to be followed by Jalalabad at the other extreme of the country a year later. Within weeks of taking Jalalabad, the Taliban achieve the ultimate success. They have been besieging Kabul for twelve months and more, while at the same time fighting other guerrilla groups
  • taliban in kabul

    in September 1996, with surprising suddeness they burst into the city.Their first act is go to the UN compound and seize the ex-president Najibullah. Within hours he and his brother are swinging from a concrete structure, among grinning tribesmen, at Kabul's main traffic intersection.
  • Massacre of the Shia Muslims

    Taliban briefly capture Mazar-e-Sharif in 1998, they similarly masssacre thousands of Shia Muslims in the city.
  • Forming a Joint Goverment

    In March 1999 their representatives and those of the Northern Alliance agree to take the first steps towards forming a joint government. There are no practical results, and early in the new century the Taliban seem to be becoming ever more extreme in their imposition of what they consider a pure Islamic society.
  • 9-11

    The terrorist attacks against the USA on 11 September 2001 transform the situation in Afghanistan. The immediate assumption in Washington is that the outrage is the work of Osama bin Laden and his al-Qa'ida organization.
  • Taliban on the Ropes

    in early 2002 the next wave of US bombing is therefore directed against these mountains. One by one the caves are taken by Afghan forces, now working with a few US forces on the ground. Large numbers of al-Qa'ida troops are killed or captured. But their leader proves as elusive as Mullah Omar.
  • US strikes back

    on October 7 missile attacks are launched against Taliban and al-Qaeda targets in Afghanistan (in an operation code-named Enduring Freedom). It is the start of a bombing campaign which lasts into the early weeks of 2002.